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Lightweight, Flexible Thermal Protection System for Fire Protection
High-Precision Electric Gate for Time-of-Flight Ion Mass Spectrometers
Polyimide Wire Insulation Repair System
Distributed Propulsion Concepts and Superparamagnetic Energy Harvesting Hummingbird Engine
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Wet Active Chevron Nozzle for Controllable Jet Noise Reduction
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Single-Mode WGM Resonators Fabricated by Diamond Turning

Resonators having desired spectral responses can be reproduced efficiently. A diamond turning process has made possible a significant advance in the art of whispering-gallery- mode (WGM) optical resonators. By use of this process, it is possible to fashion crystalline materials into WGM resonators that have ultrahigh resonance quality factors (high Q values), are compact (ranging in size from millimeters down to tens of microns), and support single electromagnetic modes.

Posted in: Briefs, TSP, Physical Sciences

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Redesigned Human Metabolic Simulator

Apparatus simulates atmospheric effects of human respiration. A design has been formulated for a proposed improved version of an apparatus that simulates atmospheric effects of human respiration by introducing controlled amounts of carbon dioxide, water vapor, and heat into the air. Denoted a human metabolic simulator (HMS), the apparatus is used for testing life-support equipment when human test subjects are not available.

Posted in: Briefs, Bio-Medical, Medical

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Compact Dielectric-Rod White-Light Delay Lines

Achievable group delays would be limited only by optical losses in materials. Optical delay lines of a proposed type would be made from rods of such dielectric materials as calcium fluoride, fused silica, or sapphire. These would offer advantages over prior optical delay lines, as summarized below.

Posted in: Briefs, TSP, Physical Sciences

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Cell-Detection Technique for Automated Patch Clamping

Candidate cells are identified automatically within one second. A unique and customizable machine-vision and image-data-processing technique has been developed for use in automated identification of cells that are optimal for patch clamping. [Patch clamping (in which patch electrodes are pressed against cell membranes) is an electrophysiological technique widely applied for the study of ion channels, and of membrane proteins that regulate the flow of ions across the membranes. Patch clamping is used in many biological research fields such as neurobiology, pharmacology, and molecular biology.] While there exist several hardware techniques for automated patch clamping of cells, very few of those techniques incorporate machine vision for locating cells that are ideal subjects for patch clamping. In contrast, the present technique is embodied in a machine-vision algorithm that, in practical application, enables the user to identify “good” and “bad” cells for patch clamping in an image captured by a charge-coupled-device (CCD) camera attached to a microscope, within a processing time of one second. Hence, the present technique can save time, thereby increasing efficiency and reducing cost.

Posted in: Briefs, TSP, Bio-Medical, Medical

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Printed Flexible Solar Cells Provide Embedded Renewable Power

In the effort to produce inexpensive, easily manufactured sources of sustainable, renewable power, solar cells continue to be a major focus — particularly flexible solar cells that can be applied directly to surfaces. Flexible solar cells are nothing new, but the methods by which they are made have progressed significantly in recent years.

Posted in: Articles

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Spiking Neurons for Analysis of Patterns

High-performance pattern-analysis systems could be implemented as analog VLSI circuits. Artificial neural networks comprising spiking neurons of a novel type have been conceived as improved pattern- analysis and pattern- recognition computational systems. These neurons are represented by a mathematical model denoted the state- variable model (SVM), which among other things, exploits a computational parallelism inherent in spiking-neuron geometry. Networks of SVM neurons offer advantages of speed and computational efficiency, relative to traditional artificial neural networks. The SVM also overcomes some of the limitations of prior spiking-neuron models. There are numerous potential pattern-recognition, tracking, and data-reduction (data preprocessing) applications for these SVM neural networks on Earth and in exploration of remote planets.

Posted in: Briefs, TSP, Information Sciences

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Symmetric Phase-Only Filtering in Particle-Image Velocimetry

Performance is enhanced significantly with little increase in computation time. Symmetrical phase-only filtering (SPOF) can be exploited to obtain substantial improvements in the results of data processing in particle- image velocimetry (PIV). In comparison with traditional PIV data processing, SPOF PIV data processing yields narrower and larger amplitude correlation peaks, thereby providing more-accurate velocity estimates. The higher signal-to-noise ratios associated with the higher amplitude correlation peaks afford greater robustness and reliability of processing. SPOF also affords superior performance in the presence of surface flare light and/or background light. SPOF algorithms can readily be incorporated into pre-existing algorithms used to process digitized image data in PIV, without significantly increasing processing times.

Posted in: Briefs, Information Sciences

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