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Neuropsychological Testing of Astronauts

The Spaceflight Cognitive Assessment Tool for Windows (WinSCAT) is a computer program that administers a battery of five timed neuro-cognitive tests.WinSCAT was developed to give astronauts an objective and automated means of assessing their cognitive functioning during space flight, as compared with their own baseline performances measured during similar prior testing on the ground. WinSCAT is also intended for use by flight surgeons to assess cognitive impairment after exposure of astronauts to such cognitive assaults as head trauma, decompression sickness,and exposure to toxic gas. The tests were selected from among a group of tests, denoted the Automated Neuropsychological Assessment Metrics, that were created by the United States Navy and Army for use in evaluating the cognitive impairment of military personnel who have been subjected to medication or are suspected to have sustained brain injuries.These tests have been validated in a variety of clinical settings and are now in the public domain. The tests are presented in a Microsoft Windows shell that facilitates administration and enables immediate reporting of test scores in numerical and graphical forms.

Posted in: Software, Briefs

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Verifying Diagnostic Software

Livingstone PathFinder (LPF) is a simulation-based computer program for verifying autonomous diagnostic software. LPF is designed especially to be applied to NASA's Livingstone computer program, which implements a qualitative-model-based algorithm that diagnoses faults in a complex automated system (e.g.,an exploratory robot, spacecraft, or aircraft). LPF forms a software test bed containing a Livingstone diagnosis engine, embedded in a simulated operating environment consisting of a simulator of the system to be diagnosed by Livingstone and a driver program that issues commands and faults according to a non-deterministic scenario provided by the user. LPF runs the test bed through all executions allowed by the scenario, checking for various selectable error conditions after each step. All components of the test bed are instrumented, so that execution can be single-stepped both backward and forward. The architecture of LPF is modular and includes generic interfaces to facilitate substitution of alternative versions of its different parts. Altogether, LPF provides a flexible, extensible framework for simulation-based analysis of diagnostic software; these characteristics also render it amenable to application to diagnostic programs other than Livingstone.

Posted in: Software, Briefs, TSP

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Initial Processing of Infrared Spectral Data

The Atmospheric Infrared Spectrometer (AIRS) Science Processing System is a collection of computer programs, denoted product generation executives (PGEs), for processing the readings of the AIRS suite of infrared and microwave instruments orbiting the Earth aboard NASA 's Aqua spacecraft. Following from level 0 (representing raw AIRS data), the PGEs and their data products are denoted by alphanumeric labels (1A,1B, and 2)that signify the successive stages of processing. Once level-0 data have been received, the level-1A PGEs begin processing, performing such basic housekeeping tasks as ensuring that all the Level-0 data are present and ordering the data according to observation times. The level-1A PGEs then perform geolocation-refinement calculations and conversions of raw data numbers to engineering units. Finally, the level-1A data are grouped into packages,denoted granules, each of which contain the data from a six-minute ob- servation period. The granules are forwarded, along with calibration data,to the Level-1B PGEs for processing into calibrated, geolocated radiance prod- ucts. The Level-2 PGEs, which are not yet operational, are intended to process the level-1B data into temperature and humidity profiles, and other geophysical properties.

Posted in: Software, Briefs, TSP

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Activity-Centric Approach to Distributed Programming

The first phase of an effort to develop a NASA version of the Cybele software system has been completed. To give meaning to even a highly abbreviated summary of the modifications to be embodied in the NASA version, it is necessary to present the following background information on Cybele:

Posted in: Software, Briefs

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Controlling Distributed Planning

A system of software implements an extended version of an approach, denoted shared activity coordination (SHAC), to the interleaving of planning and the exchange of plan information among organizations devoted to different missions that normally communicate infrequently except that they need to collaborate on joint activities and/or the use of shared resources. SHAC enables the planning and scheduling systems of the organizations to coordinate by resolving conflicts while optimizing local planning solutions. The present software provides a framework for modeling and executing communication protocols for SHAC. Shared ac- tivities are represented in each interacting planning system to establish consensus on joint activities or to inform the other systems of consumption of a common resource or a change in a shared state. The representations of shared activities are extended to include information on (1) the role(s) of each participant, (2) permissions (defined as specifications of which participant controls what aspects of shared activities and scheduling thereof), and (3) constraints on the parameters of shared activities. Also defined in the software are protocols for changing roles, permissions, and constraints during the course of coordination and execution.

Posted in: Software, Briefs, TSP

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Multifunction Imaging and Spectroscopic Instrument

There would be no repositioning for different observations of the same specimen. A proposed optoelectronic instrument would perform several different spectroscopic and imaging functions that, heretofore, have been performed by separate instruments. The functions would be reflectance, fluorescence, and Raman spectroscopies; variable-color confocal imaging at two different resolutions; and wide-field color imaging.

Posted in: Physical Sciences, Briefs

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Position-Finding Instrument Built Around a Magnetometer

A coarse indication of position is derived from a relatively inexpensive instrument. A coarse-positioning instrument is built around a three-axis magnetometer. The magnetometer is of a type that is made of inexpensive hardware and is suitable for use aboard spacecraft orbiting no more than 1,000 km above the surface of the Earth. A data processor programmed with suitable software and equipped with a central processing unit, random-access memory, programmable read-only memory, and interface circuitry for communication with external equipment are added to the basic magnetometer to convert it into a coarse-positioning instrument. Although the instrument was conceived for use aboard spacecraft, it could be useful for navigation on Earth under some circumstances.

Posted in: Physical Sciences, Briefs

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