Special Coverage

Technique Provides Security for Multi-Robot Systems
Bringing New Vision to Laser Material Processing Systems
NASA Tests Lasers’ Ability to Transmit Data from Space
Converting from Hydraulic Cylinders to Electric Actuators
Automating Optimization and Design Tasks Across Disciplines
Vibration Tables Shake Up Aerospace and Car Testing
Supercomputer Cooling System Uses Refrigerant to Replace Water
Computer Chips Calculate and Store in an Integrated Unit
Electron-to-Photon Communication for Quantum Computing

DNS of a Transitional Supercritical C7H16/N2 Mixing Layer

This report discusses direct numerical simulations (DNS) of a mixing layer, between a nitrogen stream and a heptane stream initially flowing at different velocities, under supercritical conditions and undergoing a transition to turbulence. Thermodynamically, supercritical conditions prevail when either the temperature or the pressure exceeds its critical value; the critical regime is in particular characterized by the existence of a single phase. The governing conservation equations were formulated according to fluctuation-dissipation (FD) theory, in which the low-pressure typical transport properties (viscosity, diffusivity, and thermal conductivity) are complemented, at high pressure, by a thermal-diffusion factor.

Posted in: Briefs, Physical Sciences, Computer simulation, Mathematical analysis, Thermodynamics
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Variable-Specific-Impulse Magnetoplasma Rocket

This rocket is expected to enable long-term human exploration of outer space.

Johnson Space Center has been leading the development of a high-power, electrothermal plasma rocket — the variable- specific-impulse magnetoplasma rocket (VASIMR) — that is capable of exhaust modulation at constant power. An electrodeless design enables the rocket to operate at power densities much greater than those of more conventional magnetoplasma or ion engines. An aspect of the engine design that affords a capability to achieve both high and variable specific impulse (Isp) places the VASIMR far ahead of anything available today. Inasmuch as this rocket can utilize hydrogen as its propellant, it can be operated at relatively low cost.

Posted in: Briefs, Mechanical Components, Mechanics, Hydrogen fuel, Product development, Electro-thermal engines, Rocket engines
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Current-Signature Sensor for Diagnosing Solenoid Valves

Changes in current signatures are indicators of electrical and mechanical deterioration.

The "smart" current-signature sensor is an instrument that noninvasively measures and analyzes steady-state and transient components of the magnetic field of (and, thus, indirectly, the electric current in) a solenoid valve during normal operation. The instrument is being developed to enable continuous monitoring of integrity and operational status of solenoid valves without need for interrupting operation to conduct frequent inspections. The instrument is expected to be capable of warning of imminent solenoid-valve failures so that preventive repairs can be performed. The basic instrument concept should also be adaptable to similar monitoring of electromechanical devices, other than solenoid valves, that are required to be highly reliable.

Posted in: Briefs, Electronics & Computers, Sensors and actuators, Valves, Test equipment and instrumentation
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Si Microsensor Baseplates With Low Parasitic Capacitances

An improved design also reduces thermal-expansion mismatches.

An improved design for baseplates in silicon microsensors reduces parasitic capacitances between adjacent coplanar electrodes. It also reduces thermal-expansion mismatches, which are present in baseplates of older design.

Posted in: Briefs, TSP, Electronics & Computers, Sensors and actuators, Performance upgrades, Silicon alloys, Parts
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Carbon Nanotube Bimorph Actuators and Force Sensors

These devices would make possible novel microelectromechanical systems, possibly even microscopic robots.

A proposal has been made to develop bimorph actuators and force sensors based on carbon nanotubes. The proposed devices could make it possible to generate, sense, and control displacements and forces on a molecular scale, and could readily be integrated with conventional electronic circuits. These devices could also enable the development of a variety of novel microelectromechanical systems, including low-power mechanical signal processors, nanoscale actuators and force sensors, and even microscopic robots.

Posted in: Briefs, TSP, Mechanical Components, Mechanics, Sensors and actuators, Nanomaterials
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Built-in "Health Check" for Pressure Transducers

Calibrations could be verified approximately, without removing transducers to calibration laboratories.

"Health check" would be built into pressure transducers, according to a proposal, to enable occasional, rapid, in situ testing of the transducers between normal pressure-measurement operations. The health check would include relatively simple devices that, upon command, would provide known stimuli to the transducers. The responses of the pressure transducers to these stimuli would be analyzed to quantify (at least approximately) deviations from the responses expected from previous rigorous calibrations. On the basis of such an analysis, a given pressure transducer could be removed from service, rigorously recalibrated, or continued in use with corrections applied for calibration drift. The use of the health check could provide timely warnings of pressure-transducer malfunctions and make it possible to retain confidence in the calibrations of pressure transducers while reducing the frequency with which they are replaced or subjected to full laboratory recalibration.

Posted in: Briefs, TSP, Physical Sciences, Test equipment and instrumentation
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Improvements in a Fast Transient-Voltage Recorder

The instrument is now more readily adjustable and reconfigurable.

Some improvements have been made in an instrument designed expressly for recording lightning-induced transient voltages on power and signal cables. The instrument as it existed prior to the improvements was described in "Fast Transient-Voltage Recorder" (KSC-11991), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 23, No. 10 (October 1999), page 6a.

Posted in: Briefs, Electronics & Computers, Electric cables, Performance upgrades, Lightning, Test equipment and instrumentation
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Improved Field-Emission Cathodes

Arrays of microscopic cathodes would resist poisoning and sputtering.

Microscopic cathodes based on field emission (in contradistinction to thermionic emission) are undergoing development with a view toward using them as miniature or scalable sources of electrons in diverse applications that could include spacecraft thrusters, semiconductor-fabrication equipment, flat-panel display devices, miniature x-ray sources, and electrodynamic tethers and mass spectrometers. Increasing current levels can be accomplished by increasing the number of tips in an array. The basic concepts of utilizing field-emission cathodes for such applications and of scaling up by enlarging arrays are not new; the novel aspect of the present developmental cold cathodes lies in a microfabricated cathode lens and ion repeller (CLAIR) similar to an Einzel lens which will enable the integration of field-emission cathodes with electric propulsion systems, electrodynamic tethers, and instruments while meeting performance and lifetime requirements.

Posted in: Briefs, TSP, Electronics & Computers, Electrical systems
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LabVIEW as Flight Software With VxWorks Operating System

A development effort under way at the time of reporting the information for this article is directed toward producing a version of the LabVIEW data-acquisition software that would be suitable for use as flight software that could be executed in the VxWorks real-time operating system. The approach taken in this effort is to utilize the graphical programming capability of the LabVIEW software system to reduce the time and cost of developing flight software and, more specifically, to make it possible for ground-based software to be transferred to and utilized in a flight environment without rewriting the software. Thus far, a prototype flight version of LabVIEW has been developed to run in a VxWorks real-time operating system on an embedded processor for precisely controlling the temperature of an isolated cryogenic platform. (The temperature-control system is undergoing development for use in a future low-temperature microgravitational facility.)

Posted in: Briefs, TSP, Software, Computer software and hardware, Flight control systems
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Robot for Positioning Sensors in a Plant-Growth Chamber

The Advanced Life Support Automated Remote Manipulator (ALSARM) is a three-degree-of-freedom robotic system that positions an array of sensors inside a closed-system hydroponic chamber used in research on the production of biomass and the use of hydroponic subsystems of life-support systems. The array includes sensors to measure the light intensity, air temperature, infrared temperature, relative humidity, and airflow. The ALSARM operates under either automatic control by a personal computer or manual control through a teaching pendant (essentially, a hand-held box that contains switches and indicators wired to a plug for connection to the rest of the ALSARM control circuitry). The motivation for developing the ALSARM was the need to eliminate the leakage of the chamber atmosphere and the potential for contamination associated with the prior practice of opening the chamber so that technicians could enter to take environmental measurements. One especially notable feature of the ALSARM is a horizontal telescoping arm, through which power and signal cables for the sensors are routed. The cables are extended and retracted with the motion of the telescoping sections by use of a servomotor and gravitation, respectively.

Posted in: Briefs, TSP, Mechanical Components, Mechanics, Sensors and actuators, Life support systems, Robotics
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