An InGaAs-based three-junction (3J) tandem thermophotovoltaic (TPV) cell has been investigated to utilize more of the blackbody spectrum (from a 1,100 °C general purpose heat source — GPHS) efficiently. The tandem consists of three vertically stacked subcells, a 0.74-eV InGaAs cell, a 0.6-eV InGaAs cell, and a 0.55-eV InGaAs cell, as well as two interconnecting tunnel junctions.
A >20% TPV system efficiency was achieved by another group with a 1,040 °C blackbody using a single-bandgap 0.6-eV InGaAs cell MIM (monolithic interconnected module) (30 lateral junctions) that delivered about 12 V/30 or 0.4 V/junction. It is expected that a three-bandgap tandem MIM will eventually have about 3× this voltage (1.15 V) and about half the current. A 4 A/cm2 would be generated by a single-bandgap 0.6-V InGaAs MIM, as opposed to the 2 A/cm2 available from the same spectrum when split among the three series-connected junctions in the tandem stack. This would then be about a 50% increase (3×Voc, 0.5×Isc) in output power if the proposed tandem replaced the single-bandgap MIM.
The advantage of the innovation, if successful, would be a 50% increase in power conversion efficiency from radioisotope heat sources using existing thermophotovoltaics. Up to 50% more power would be generated for radioisotope GPHS deep space missions. This type of InGaAs multijunction stack could be used with terrestrial concentrator solar cells to increase efficiency from 41 to 45% or more.
This work was done by Steven Wojtczuk of Spire Semiconductor for Glenn Research Center.
Inquiries concerning rights for the commercial use of this invention should be addressed to NASA Glenn Research Center, Innovative Partnerships Office, Attn: Steven Fedor, Mail Stop 4–8, 21000 Brookpark Road, Cleveland, Ohio 44135. LEW-18909-1