The manufacturing of consumer products, foods, and pharmaceuticals requires the implementation of stringent cleaning requirements of all batch, semi-continuous, and continuous processes equipment. High standards of hygienic quality must be maintained, and the cleaning process must ensure that there is no cross-contamination of products. A client needs to reduce the amount of water required to clean stainless steel-based manufacturing plant equipment, such as vessels, mixers, and pipework. New chemical and/or process technologies must clean products of wide-ranging viscosities. Potential solution areas include self-cleaning surfaces, surface- modification technologies, and air-based cleaning.