Spacecraft Seat Standards Lead to Comfort in Your Car

NASA standards for optimum neutral body posture in spacecraft have led to ergonomic car seats. In the beginning, safety outweighed comfort in spacecraft designs for human space travel. Capsules like Gemini and Apollo were small, and most of the flight activities were performed while the crew was strapped to their seats. Later, NASA devoted more attention to understanding how a spacecraft could provide comfort as well as safety and function to astronauts. NASA examined the neutral body posture (NBP), or the posture the human body naturally assumes in microgravity.

Posted in: Articles, Spinoff

Read More >>

Strobing to Mitigate Vibration for Display Legibility

Blur is eliminated with appropriate strobing frequency. Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, California This method mitigates the motion blur introduced when a display, and/or the operator reading it, is undergoing vibration (e.g. during the launch phase of spaceflight). If both the operator and the display are undergoing vibration, their respective impulses need not be in phase. This mitigation occurs when the display is illuminated at a strobing rate that corresponds with the frequency of the vibration. This can be done either by strobing the ambient illumination in the environment (e.g., if the operator is reading a reflective surface display), or by strobing the display itself (e.g., strobing the LED backlighting of an electronic display).

Posted in: Physical Sciences, Imaging, Briefs

Read More >>

Imaging Space System Architectures Using a Granular Medium as a Primary Concentrator

Higher-resolution optics provide improved hyperspectral imaging for ocean and land monitoring, as well as exoplanet detection. NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California Typically, the cost of a space observatory is driven by the size and mass of the primary aperture. Generally, a monolithic aperture is much heavier and complex to fabricate (hence, more costly) than an aperture of the same size but composed of much smaller units. Formation flying technology, as applied to swarm systems in space, is an emerging discipline.

Posted in: Physical Sciences, Imaging, Briefs

Read More >>

Image Processing Method To Determine Dust Optical Density

John F. Kennedy Space Center, Florida Image processing techniques for determining dust optical density in Apollo videos have been developed. The software generates histograms, and calculates the mean and standard deviation, which are then used to match dusty and clear images for the purpose of estimating an effective optical density. A dust thickness model, based on the tilt of the camera and increasing thickness of the dust layer towards the top of the image, is used to account for the distance light travels through dust.

Posted in: Physical Sciences, Imaging, Briefs

Read More >>

Automatic Lunar Rock Detection and Mapping

NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California Safe spacecraft landing on planetary and small body surfaces is of primary concern. Estimation of landing risk is a critical task when evaluating and certifying potential landing sites. Such analyses require the detection and mapping of all potential landing hazards such as rocks and boulders, craters, slopes, and terrain roughness.

Posted in: Information Sciences, Electronics & Computers, Imaging, Briefs

Read More >>

Technique for Finding the Center of an Image of a Rising or Setting Sun Based on Simulated Images

NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California A new JPL project requires that the center of the images of a rising or setting Sun be determined with certain accuracy — for example, within 1 km — when the Sun is observed from the International Space Station (ISS). This center-finding technique can be used in applications such as a Sun-Tracker. To meet such needs, a simulation tool was developed for the generation of Sun images observed either on the ground or from space. The new technique enables one to find the center of a Sun image based on simulated images. The technique does not rely on ellipse-fitting to the boundary of a Sun image or other calibration techniques, so the accuracy is not affected by the distortion of Sun images.

Posted in: Information Sciences, Electronics & Computers, Imaging, Briefs

Read More >>

High/Low-Temperature Contactless RF Probes for Characterizing Microwave Integrated Circuits and Devices

These probing systems can be used in wireless sensors in applications such as oil wells, aircraft engines, and robotic landers. John H. Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, Ohio Low-temperature, contactless radio-frequency (RF) probing systems are necessary for characterizing sensors operating at liquid nitrogen or helium temperatures, and based on superconducting materials. The design and operation of the contactless RF probing systems relies on strong electromagnetic coupling that takes place between two different microwave transmission lines oriented in close proximity, but not in contact with each other, to ensure high thermal isolation. The goal of this work is to develop a reliable, easily constructed, less expensive, contactless RF probe for characterizing microwave integrated circuits (MICs) and devices embedded in sensors fabricated on conformal or non-planar substrates, at elevated or cryogenic temperatures.

Posted in: Electronics & Computers, Briefs

Read More >>