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dB or not dB? Everything you ever wanted to know about decibels but were afraid to ask...

True or false: 30 dBm + 30 dBm = 60 dBm? Why does 1% work out to be -40 dB one time but then 0.1 dB or 0.05 dB the next time? These questions sometimes leave even experienced engineers scratching their heads. Decibels are found everywhere, including power levels, voltages, reflection coefficients, noise figures, field strengths and more. What is a decibel and how should we use it in our calculations? This Application Note is intended as a refresher on the subject of decibels.

Posted in: White Papers, White Papers, Aeronautics, Defense, RF & Microwave Electronics

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Introduction into Theory of Direction Finding

Applications of direction finding While direction finding for navigation purposes (referred to as cooperative direction finding) is becoming less important due to the availability of satellite navigation systems, there is a growing requirement for determining the location of emitters as the mobility of communications equipment increases:

Posted in: White Papers, White Papers, Aeronautics, Defense, RF & Microwave Electronics

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Spectrum Analyzer Fundamentals – Theory and Operation of Modern Spectrum Analyzers

This primer examines the theory of state-of-the-art spectrum analysis and describes how modern spectrum analyzers are designed and how they work. That is followed by a brief characterization of today's signal generators, which are needed as a stimulus when performing amplifier measurements.

Posted in: White Papers, White Papers, Aeronautics, Defense, RF & Microwave Electronics

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Evolution of the Modern Receiver in a Crowded Spectrum Environment

The International Telecommunications Union Radiocommunications working group (ITU-R) outlines recommendations for the regulations and procedures for federal radio frequency management. This white paper takes a look at the evolution from the analog spectrum analyzer to the modern digital receiver in line with ITU-R Recommendations. It also gives some examples of the importance of the new architecture in today’s spectrum environment.

Posted in: White Papers, White Papers, Aeronautics, Defense, RF & Microwave Electronics

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Improving Medical Devices with Force Sensing Technology

This white paper explores the exciting new trend toward designing smart medical devices that provide critical force feedback to eliminate guesswork, improve outcomes, and increase consistency. Technical topics covered include the unique advantages of force sensing resistor technology over traditional technologies such as strain gauges and load cells. These advantages include simpler electronics, wider dynamic range, ease of integration, and lower cost. The white paper highlights how thin and flexible sensors have enhanced a wide range of medical device applications by providing force feedback and making the products smart.

Posted in: White Papers, Sensors

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Mikrotron Cameras Bring Accuracy, High Performance, and Flexibility to 3D Trajectory Reconstruction

Static two-dimensional images have proven to be of great analytical value, but analysis in more dynamic environments depends upon accurate and continuous imaging of three-dimensional volumes. Fluid motion often presents that type of dynamic environment. For example, turbulent fluid flow through irregular media — such as water flow along a gravel streambed — is almost impossible to represent with a closed-form mathematical model. To study such situations, researchers turn to a technique called 3D particle tracking velocimetry, or 3D-PTV. Mikrotron cameras have proven to be invaluable elements of high-performance 3D-PTV systems.

Posted in: White Papers, Imaging

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Reducing Development Cycles for 3U VPX Systems

This white paper outlines the key challenges system integrators face when building a system with 3U VPX COTS-based solutions.

Posted in: White Papers, White Papers, Defense, Electronics & Computers

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