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An Improved Method for Differential Conductance Measurements

As modern electronics continue to shrink, researchers are increasingly looking to nanotechnology as the basis for the next breakthrough in device size and power consumption. Indeed, as semiconductor structures are made smaller and smaller, the distinction between small silicon geometries and large molecules becomes blurred. Approached from either direction, the consequences are the same. Quantum behavior such as tunneling begins to play an important role in the electrical characteristics. In the macroscopic world, conductors may have obeyed Ohm’s Law (Figure 1a), but in the nanoscale, Ohm’s definition of resistance is no longer relevant (Figure 1b). Because the slope of the I-V curve is no longer a fundamental constant of the material, a detailed measurement of the slope of that I-V curve at every point is needed to study nanodevices. This plot of differential conductance (dG = dI/dV) is the most important measurement made on small scale devices, but presents a unique set of challenges.

Posted in: Test & Measurement, White Papers

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Gearing Up for Parametric Test’s High Voltage Future

Many parametric test engineers are learning to cope with new high voltage process requirements. Not surprisingly, high voltage processes require high voltage parametric testing for process control and reliability monitoring. Part of the challenge lies in the fact that these new high voltage requirements add to the list of parametric tests rather than replacing some portion of it. In many if not most cases, the high voltage transistors are controlled by complex logic that requires low voltage/low current parametric test. Consequently, both high voltage and logic tests have to be addressed within the same test plan while minimizing impact on throughput.

Posted in: Test & Measurement, White Papers

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Rapidly Expanding Array of Test Applications Continues to Drive Source Measurement Unit Instrument Technology

Since their introduction more than two decades ago, source measurement units (SMUs) have evolved into a category of multi-purpose instruments that are regularly called upon to address a rapidly expanding array of electronics industry applications:Semiconductor device fabrication, process development, and product research/design Production verification of electronic products such as portable wireless devices Production and development of new advanced materials for devices such as solar cells and HBLEDs Almost any electronic device test application

Posted in: Test & Measurement, White Papers

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Performance Characteristics of Digital Frequency Discriminators

Digital frequency discriminators are key components of instantaneous frequency measurement (IFM) receiver systems as well as many other complex electronic warfare (EW) systems. However, to obtain optimum results it is essential to match DFD performance levels to a specific application. DFDs are integral components of IFM receiver systems; they may also be imbedded into a wide range of military systems such as radar warning receivers (RWRs), electronic countermeasures (ECM) systems, and electronic support measures (ESM) platforms, where they help provide instantaneous frequency measurement capability.

Posted in: Electronics & Computers, White Papers

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Sensors For Use In Aerospace, Military and Industrial Markets

The force balance sensor is intended for DC and low frequency acceleration measurements, such as those encountered in the motion of vehicles, aircraft and ships. These sensors are capable of measuring levels from as low as 0.0001g up to 200g’s over a frequency range from DC to 1000Hz. In addition, due to their inherent sensitivity to gravity, the force balance accelerometers with certain modifications or special features become excellent instruments for measuring angles of inclination. This type of sensor, often referred to as an inclinometer is useful in applications such as platform leveling, pipeline leveling, gun sight control, borehole mapping and other low level seismic measurement applications.

Posted in: Sensors, White Papers

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Plastic Electrical Enclosures – Solutions for Extreme Customization

Standard enclosures do not remain standard for long. In no time, engineers put holes, cutouts, and recesses into pristine boxes. This process is necessary to make the enclosures functional. There are switches to mount, readouts to view and connections to be made.

Posted in: Electronics & Computers, White Papers

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Manager's Guide to Productivity Gains with Multiphysics Simulation Part II: Speed Innovation & Reduce Costs

Discover how companies have saved time and money, and brought new products to market faster, by adopting COMSOL Multiphysics and simulation-led design. For example, learn how B&C Speakers used modeling to develop a novel acoustic lens and dramatically shortened the time needed to find the best design. In the medical industry, Continuum Blue was able to pinpoint a manufacturing problem using simulation, enabling them to bring a new implant to clinical trials. In the auto industry, General Motors used COMSOL to model advanced materials for their green automobiles, and Metelli saved design time and cost of producing auto parts. Learn how NASA is using simulation to save time and resources in developing equipment to extract water trapped below the moon's surface. Back on Earth, multiphysics modeling has helped Osram Sylvania develop energy-saving lamps. Also read how COMSOL helped Procter & Gamble save time and money in manufacturing and shipping household products.

Posted in: Software, White Papers

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