Multi-Spoked Wheel Assembly

This innovation can be applied to robots used by first responders and others as a single ground-traction mechanism in a variety of environments.

NASA Glenn researchers have developed a spoked drive mechanism for robots and other vehicles that is capable of two rotational modes. This robust ground traction (drive) assembly for remotely controlled vehicles operates smoothly not only on surfaces that are flat, but also upon surfaces that include rugged terrain, snow, mud, and sand. The assembly includes a sun gear and a braking gear. The sun gear is configured to cause rotational force to be applied to second planetary gears through a coupling of first planetary gears. The braking gear is configured to cause the assembly (or the second planetary gears) to rotate around the braking gear when an obstacle or braking force is applied.

Posted in: Briefs, Mechanical Components, Wheels, Robotics, Autonomous vehicles, Vehicle dynamics
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Nanotube-Based Device Cooling System

Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are being studied for applications in high-strength/low-weight composites and other applications. Recent research on thermal dissipation materials for high-power electronic devices is generating a lot of interest in various industries. NASA has developed a method for cooling a device, such as an electronic device, that produces extreme heat that must be dissipated. CNTs have attracted much attention due to their extraordinary mechanical and unique electronic properties. Computer chips have been subjected to higher and higher thermal loads and it is challenging to find new ways to perform heat dissipation. As a result, heat dissipation demand for computer systems is increasing dramatically. CNTs, which are known to provide high thermal conductivity and to be small and flexible, are suitable for cooling these electronic devices. One critical problem is provision of a compliant, usable composite of CNTs with a material that meets other needs for heat dissipation.

Posted in: Briefs, Mechanical Components, Electronic equipment, Electronic equipment, Thermal management, Thermal management, Composite materials, Materials properties, Nanotechnology
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Self-Latching Piezocomposite Actuator

Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia

NASA’s Langley Research Center has developed a self-latching piezocomposite actuator. The self-latching nature of this invention allows for piezo actuators that do not require constant power draw. Among other applications, the invention is well suited for use in aerodynamic control surfaces and engine inlets. The technology is a self-latching piezoelectric actuator with power-off, set-and-hold capability. Integrated into an aerodynamic control surface or engine inlet, the self-latching piezocomposite actuator may function as a trim tab, variable camber airfoil, vortex generator, or winglet with adjustable shapes. Deflections could be made in-flight, and set and maintained (latched) without a constant power draw. Current piezo actuators require constant power to control and manage their electric fields. The control device leverages the shape memory behavior (specifically, the remnant stress-strain behavior) to create a morphing actuator that changes and holds the new shape with no applied control signal.

Posted in: Briefs, Mechanical Components, Automation, Airframes, Electronic control units, Sensors and actuators, Electronic control units, Sensors and actuators
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Active Response Gravity Offload and Method

The technology has commercial possibilities wherever individuals have to interact with heavy objects within a confined volume.

Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, Houston, Texas

To train astronauts to live and work in the weightless environment on the International Space Station, NASA employs a number of techniques and facilities that simulate microgravity. Engineers at the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) have developed a new system called the Active Response Gravity Offload System (ARGOS) that provides a simulated reduced gravity environment within a confined interior volume for astronauts to move about and/or equipment to be moved about as if they were in a different gravity field. Each astronaut/item is connected to an overhead crane system that senses their actions (walking or jumping, for example) and then lifts, moves, and descends them as if they had performed the action in a specified reduced gravity.

Posted in: Briefs, Mechanical Components, Automation, Education, Education and training, Automation, Test facilities
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Fluid Harmonic Absorber

These devices can be used in multistory buildings, towers, bridges, offshore oil rigs, water tanks, and marine applications.

Marshall Space Flight Center, Alabama

NASA Marshall Space Flight Center’s Fluid Structure Coupling (FSC) technology is a highly efficient and passive method to control the way fluids and structures communicate and dictate the behavior of a system. This technology has the demonstrated potential to mitigate a multitude of different types of vibration issues, and can be applied anywhere internal or external fluids interact with physical structures. For example, in a multistory building, water from a rooftop tank or swimming pool could be used to mitigate seismic or wind-induced vibration by simply adding an FSC device that controls the way the building engages the water.

Posted in: Briefs, Mechanical Components, Automation, Water, Vibration, Vibration
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Variable-Aperture Reciprocating Reed Valve

Marshall Space Flight Center, Alabama

NASA’s Marshall Space Flight Center engineers have developed a new reed valve for controlling fluid flow back and forth between two chambers. The VARR valve provides two-way flow that is proportional to flow demand. As the pressure gradient builds on one side, the reed valve responds by opening an amount that is proportionate to the gradient, or demand, allowing bidirectional flow. Some mechanical and fluid systems that rely on the controlled flow of fluids between chambers will benefit from the new design. Compared to current fixed-orifice devices, VARR may expand the performance envelope by offering a more continuous flow response in applications in which the pressure environment is constantly changing. Proportional two-way flow can enable a fine-tuned system response to pressure building on one side of the valve. In these changing gradient conditions, the reed valve is better than fixed-sized orifices, which are optimized for one flow condition and are likely to over- or under-restrict flow for all other flow gradients.

Posted in: Briefs, Mechanical Components, Automation, Computational fluid dynamics, Valves, Hydraulic systems
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Passive, Integrated, Sublimator-Driven Coldplate

Marshall Space Flight Center, Alabama

Spacecraft thermal control systems typically perform three key functions — heat acquisition, heat transport, and heat rejection — in addition to those of insulation, heat generation, and heat storage. In a typical pumped fluid-loop spacecraft thermal control system, heat is acquired from heat-generating equipment via coldplates, transported via pumps and cooling lines, and rejected to space via radiators, evaporators, and/or sublimators. Combining all three of these functions into one hardware component can provide system mass savings by combining multiple pieces of hardware into a single piece, and providing additional fault tolerance without the need for redundant hardware.

Posted in: Briefs, Mechanical Components, Automation, Heating, ventilation, and air conditioning systems (HVAC), Thermal management, Heating, ventilation, and air conditioning systems (HVAC), Thermal management, Hardware, Spacecraft
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Strat-X

This innovation is potentially useful for scientific experiments at the edge of space or autonomous environmental monitoring in extreme conditions.

John F. Kennedy Space Center, Florida

Experiments in space can be expensive and infrequent, but Earth’s upper atmosphere is accessible via large scientific balloons, and can be used to address many of the same fundamental questions. Scientific balloons are made of a thin polyethylene film inflated with helium, and can carry atmospheric sampling instruments on a gondola suspended underneath the balloon that eventually is returned to the surface on a parachute. For stratospheric flights between 30 and 40 km above sea level, balloons typically reach the float altitude 2-3 hours after launch, and travel in the direction of the prevailing winds.

Posted in: Briefs, Mechanical Components, Automation, Weather and climate, Test equipment and instrumentation, Unmanned aerial vehicles
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Hydraulic Pressure Distribution System

This mechanism enhances the performance of mechanically impeding elements in an on-command operational exoskeleton.

NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California

Human operation in space over long time periods causes bone and muscle deterioration, so there is a need for countermeasures in the form of physical exercises consisting of working against controlled resistivity. Generally, there are three types of exercise machines that are used by space crews to maintain their fitness: the Crew Exercise Vibration Isolation System (CEVIS), the Treadmill Vibration Isolation System/Second ISS Treadmill (TVIS/T2), and the Advanced Resistive Exercise Device (ARED). These machines have the limitations of very large mass (some weigh about a ton), large operational volumes, cumbersome design, and the need to compensate the generated vibrations and large shifting of the center of mass. They also require interrupting the astronauts’ duties to perform the exercises, as well as requiring periodic costly maintenance. The disclosed de vice provides key elements to enabling the design and operation of compact exercise machines that overcome many of the disadvantages of the current exercise machines found on space vehicles/stations.

Posted in: Briefs, Mechanical Components, Automation, Downsizing, Medical, health, and wellness, Personnel, Lightweighting
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Piezoelectric-Actuated Rotary Ultrasonic Motor

This motor can be used where rotary actuation is required, particularly in cryogenic and high-temperature applications.

NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California

This actuator was developed out of a need for a cryogenic actuator that can operate effectively in spite of the thermal mismatch involved with construction materials that have different expansion coefficients. Also, there is a need for a cryogenic motor that can drive infrared systems and produce minimal thermal energy that can interfere with their operation.

Posted in: Briefs, Mechanical Components, Mechanics, Automation, Sensors and actuators, Sensors and actuators, Thermal management, Thermal management, Materials properties
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