Microwave Sterilization and Depyrogenation System

Lightweight and portable systems can be deployed to provide medical-grade water.

A fully functional, microgravity-compatible microwave sterilization and depyrogenation system (MSDS) prototype was developed that is capable of producing medical-grade water (MGW) without expendable supplies, using NASA potable water that currently is available aboard the International Space Station (ISS) and will be available for Lunar and planetary missions in the future. The microwavebased, continuous MSDS efficiently couples microwaves to a single-phase, pressurized, flowing water stream that is rapidly heated above 150 ºC. Under these conditions, water is rapidly sterilized. Endotoxins, significant biological toxins that originate from the cell walls of gram-negative bacteria and which represent another defining MGW requirement, are also deactivated (i.e., depyrogenated) albeit more slowly, with such deactivation representing a more difficult challenge than sterilization.

Posted in: Briefs, MDB, TSP, Briefs, TSP, Bio-Medical, Medical, Patient Monitoring, Water reclamation, Bacteria, Production, Radiation, Spacecraft
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Reliability and Validity of a Prototype Fluid Intake Monitor

Fluid intake monitors are designed to ensure that soldiers consume recommended amounts of water.

Maintaining adequate hydration is an important part of maintaining health, especially under extreme operational and environmental conditions where medical assistance might not be readily available. One approach to measuring the amount of fluid consumed is through the use of Fluid Intake Monitor (FIM) technologies to monitor fluid consumption. These devices can be used to ensure that warfighters consume recommended/ appropriate amounts of water, and to tailor logistical support to actual water needs, as water is expensive to transport.

Posted in: Briefs, MDB, TSP, Briefs, TSP, Bio-Medical, Medical, Patient Monitoring, Sensors and actuators, Sensors and actuators, Water, Logistics, Personnel, Military vehicles and equipment
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A Finite-Element Model for Evaluation of Middle Ear Mechanics

This model can be used in reconstruction of the link between the eardrum and the inner ear.

In conductive hearing loss cases, 59% involve defects of the incus. For efficient restoration of hearing, the defective incus is normally removed and the mechanical link between the eardrum and inner ear is reconstructed. In cases of incus defects, the reconstruction is normally of the form of a rod, positioned to connect the malleus handle or eardrum directly to the cochlea oval window. A more promising approach to prosthesis design is to reconstruct the chain along more physiologically relevant lines. It has been shown that excellent reconstruction of the ossicular chain can be achieved using a generic incus shape. In a series of in vitro studies, it was shown that secure attachment of the prosthesis to the stapes and malleus, with ionomeric cement, could restore hearing within 10 dB of the original frequency response. This study attempts to model these in vitro findings using a finite element computer model. The goal of the study is to produce a computer model that can be used to simulate different forms of attachment to the prosthesis.

Posted in: Briefs, MDB, TSP, Briefs, TSP, Bio-Medical, Medical, Software, Finite element analysis, Prostheses and implants, Sound quality, Sound quality
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Computer-Assisted Laser Treatment Using Real-Time Retinal Tracking

This computerized system accurately guides laser shots to diseased retinal areas.

Diabetic retinopathy resulting from long-term diabetes mellitus is one of the common diseases that leads to choroidal neovascularization (CNV), a leading cause of blindness. Among the currently available treatment methods, a laser can be used to photocoagulate the diseased areas. Several thousand laser shots are usually required during such treatment. Special care must be taken to avoid hitting the blood vessel tree, the macula, the optic disk, and the region among them. For a single eye, this procedure requires up to several hours that are usually divided over many treatment sessions. Consequently, the development of an accurate laser treatment guidance system to treat the whole retina in one session would improve the effectiveness of such procedures.

Posted in: Briefs, MDB, TSP, Briefs, TSP, Bio-Medical, Medical, Motion Control, Lasers & Laser Systems, Photonics, Computer software / hardware, Computer software and hardware, Lasers, Computer software / hardware, Computer software and hardware, Lasers, Diseases, Surgical procedures
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Medical Information Network Decision Support System

A standardized platform stores and fuses medical data, while providing probabilistic diagnostic and treatment decisions.

In order to facilitate a more rapid and systematic transfer of new medical knowledge and capabilities into mainstream clinical practice, a new Medical Information Network Decision Support (MINDS) system was developed. This system is intended to be a platform for storing and fusing medical data in a standardized way, and for providing probabilistic diagnostic and treatment decisions to assist doctors and medical researchers in understanding and treating disease.

Posted in: Briefs, MDB, TSP, Briefs, TSP, Bio-Medical, Medical, Software, Architecture, Architecture, Diagnosis, Medical, health, and wellness, Data management
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Quantifying Therapeutic and Diagnostic Efficacy in 2D Microvascular Images

VESGEN is a newly automated, user- interactive program that maps and quantifies the effects of vascular therapeutics and regulators on microvascular form and function. VESGEN analyzes two- dimensional, black and white vascular images by measuring important vessel morphology parameters. This software guides the user through each required step of the analysis process via a concise graphical user interface (GUI). There are control options ranging from “one-click” analysis given a primary output, to step-by-step control over each image and algorithm used in an analysis. An option is provided to select a vascular tissue type, which determines the general collections of algorithms, intermediate images, and output images and measurements that will be produced. The UI automatically restructures itself to provide customized user controls for studying the requested type of tissue.

Posted in: Briefs, MDB, TSP, Briefs, TSP, Bio-Medical, Diagnostics, Medical, Software, Computer software / hardware, Computer software and hardware, Imaging, Imaging and visualization, Computer software / hardware, Computer software and hardware, Imaging, Imaging and visualization, Cardiovascular system, Human machine interface (HMI)
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Micro-Organ Devices

Effects of drugs can be tested realistically, without experimentation on animals.

Micro-organ devices (MODs) are being developed to satisfy an emerging need for small, lightweight, reproducible, biological-experimentation apparatuses that are amenable to automated operation and that impose minimal demands for resources (principally, power and fluids). MODs are intended to overcome major disadvantages of conventional in vitro and conventional in vivo experimentation for purposes of investigating effects of medicines, toxins, and possibly other foreign substances.

Posted in: Briefs, MDB, Briefs, Bio-Medical, Drug Delivery, Medical, Patient Monitoring, Scale models, Anatomy, Biological sciences, Test equipment and instrumentation
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Mulifunctional Electrosurgical Instrument

Several surgical tasks can be accomplished with a single, handheld instrument.

The Multifunctional Electrosurgic Instrument (LESDIC) is an electrocauterizing surgical device that is comprised of a serrated chisel tip for sharp, blunt, or cutting dissection. It is also equipped with suctioning, irrigation, and coagulation features. The suction can be controlled at variable speeds and pressures. This electrosurgical instrument can be utilized in various surgical procedures such as mastectomies, tonsillectomies, repair of umbilical hernias, cosmetic surgeries, and ovarian surgeries, and operations involving all of the following procedures: cutting/dissecting, coagulating bleeding blood vessels, suctioning blood and smoke, and irrigating the surgical site as necessary.

Posted in: Briefs, MDB, Briefs, Bio-Medical, Medical, Medical equipment and supplies, Surgical procedures
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Sensory Feedback System for Prosthetic Hand Using Interferential Current

This sensory feedback system would help amputees execute fine tasks or handle delicate objects easily.

A new type of sensory feedback system for a myoelectrically controlled biomimetic prosthetic hand was developed. One of the characteristic features of the human neuromuscular control system is the increase in the compliance around a joint with decreasing activity of a muscle. Interferential current that uses two waves and interferences was used to synthesize a low frequency in the body. One frequency was fixed at 4,000 Hz and the other frequency was changed from 3,700 Hz to 4,000 Hz. As a result, stimulus frequency in the body was changed from 0 Hz to 300 Hz. It was measured that the subjects could distinguish the change of stimulus frequency, and confirmed that the interference current is a useful method for sensibility feedback of a prosthetic hand.

Posted in: Briefs, MDB, TSP, Briefs, TSP, Bio-Medical, Implants & Prosthetics, Medical, Sensors, Electrical systems, Electrical systems, Nervous system, Prostheses and implants
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Remote Diagnostic Technology for Hearing Assessment

Clinicians can remotely assess, diagnose, and remedy hearing loss.

Individuals with hearing loss need to have ready access to hearing screenings, assessments, treatment, and consultation. This diagnostic technology facilitates early detection and intervention of hearing loss. It allows for improved monitoring and expands service scope, reach, and access. By reducing or eliminating travel times, it is also a more efficient utilization of time for audiologists and professional staff. The tele-hearing device and protocol provides clinicians the tools and the ability to remotely assess, diagnose, and remedy hearing loss. This is accomplished either directly or indirectly by facilitating assistance to other less experienced clinicians remotely.

Posted in: Briefs, MDB, Briefs, Electronics, Electronics & Computers, Bio-Medical, Medical, Patient Monitoring, Internet, Internet, Diagnosis, Medical equipment and supplies, Nervous system, Noise, Noise
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