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Capacitively Coupled Quantum Capacitance Detector

A large number of future NASA astrophysics missions will rely on cryogenic detectors in order to meet science goals. NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California Future cryogenic far-infrared (IR) missions will require moderate-resolution far-IR spectrometers operating at the photon background limit. Full utilization of these facilities requires compact, multiplexable dispersive spectrometers with integrated detector arrays with sensitivities less than 3×10–20 W/(Hz)1/2. The detectors described here will be capable of those sensitivities.

Posted in: Briefs, Sensors

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Nanosensors for Medical Diagnosis

This technology also has homeland security and medical applications. Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, California Many diseases are accompanied by characteristic odors, and their recognition can provide diagnostic clues, guide the laboratory evaluation, and affect the choice of immediate therapy. The study of the chemical composition in human breath using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) has shown a correlation between the volatile compounds and the occurrence of certain illnesses. The presence of those specific compounds can provide an indication to physiological malfunction and support the diagnosis of diseases. This condition requires an analytical tool with very high sensitivity for measurement.

Posted in: Briefs, Sensors

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Passive Voice-Enabled RFID Devices

The devices are used for sensor and RFID multifunctionality. Stennis Space Center, Mississippi Radio-Frequency IDentification (RFID) is a technology that provides automatic identification of objects, and relies on storing and remotely retrieving data using devices called RFID tags or transponders. The RFID tag is an object that can be applied to and/or incorporated into a product, animal, or person for the purpose of identification using radio waves. Some tags can even be read from several meters away and beyond the line of sight of the reader. Generally, there are three varieties of RFID tags: passive, active, or semi-passive (also known as battery-assisted). Passive tags require no internal power source, are powered by harvesting energy from various artificial energy sources and/or natural energy sources (such as voice signals, other electromagnetic waves, sunlight, vibrations, or RF noise), and are only active when a reader is nearby to power them; semi-passive and active tags require a power source to function (usually a small battery).

Posted in: Briefs, Sensors

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Lightweight, Flexible, Energy-Manageable Polymer Nanocomposites

Applications include solar power panels on aircraft wings or building roofs, and in hybrid car engines. Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia Solar energy has attracted keen attention because it is a unique, clean, and sustainable energy resource. It is also widely utilized as a power source in space exploration. A lightweight, durable, deployable, and highly efficient all polymer-based solar power panel was developed comprising a highly efficient thermoelectric conducting polymer composite layer and highly efficient solar absorbance/passive cooling coatings for maximizing efficiency of the power conversion.

Posted in: Briefs, TSP

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Nanocomposites for Radiation Shielding

Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia Currently, lead and lead-based materials are used to fabricate shields not only for X-rays, but also for other types of radiation. With the growing environmental concern about the toxicity of lead, and the high costs associated with transporting heavy lead-based shields in spacecraft, alternatives are needed for fabricating X-ray shields that are less toxic and lighter.

Posted in: Briefs, TSP

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Lightweight, High-Strength Nanocomposite Magnesium for Radiators

New material offers an exceptional balance of properties and cost. Marshall Space Flight Center, Alabama The next generation of radiators will be designed using a composite with the combination of the lowest density, highest thermal conductivity, and highest strength. A scalable, low-cost process was developed to advance state-of-the-art metal matrix thermal conductors to reach a theoretical goal of 578 W/mK (270W/mK achieved), a density less than aluminum (1.7g.cc achieved), and a yield strength over 30 ksi (≈207 MPa, 42 ksi achieved). The incorporation of nanofibers into metals has been heavily researched to improve mechanical and thermal properties of materials, with limited technical and commercial success. The problem of incorporating high-aspect-ratio, high-surface-area particles (including fiber and flake) with controlled and repeatable concentration and distribution into molten metals is a large undertaking, and must factor in the molten metal temperature, composition, and surface tension. Direct feeding of the particles does not work, as particles burn, react with the molten metal, or do not stay in the metal. Other feeding mechanisms such as auger feeding into the metal, in-situ formation, and stir casting are cost-prohibitive and not always scalable.

Posted in: Briefs

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Advanced Protective Coatings for Graphite Substrates

This innovation enables application of graphite components in a hydrogen environment at very high temperatures. John H. Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, Ohio The purpose of this innovation is to develop advanced multilayered coating architectures to protect graphite substrates from hot hydrogen attack. The concept consists of coating the graphite substrate with metallic and non-metallic layers consisting of ZrC; Nb, Mo, and/or Nb-Mo alloy; and/or Mo2C.

Posted in: Briefs, TSP

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