Electronics

AGM Thumbtack™ Valves for Small Enclosures: Smaller and Drier

Sensitive equipment such as optics and electronics can be damaged by humidity and condensation. Placing moisture-sensitive equipment inside a sealed enclosure reduces the risk of damage, but temperature and pressure variations can be problematic for a sealed enclosure if it does not have a pressure-relief mechanism.

Posted in: White Papers, Defense, Electronics, Electronics & Computers, Instrumentation
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Tailor-made Computing Solutions Require Diverse I/O Functions

More than ever, users from industry and transportation expect the full system solution, but no longer want to have to worry about the cumbersome configuration and integration of individual hardware components and adapting the software. There is a very simple reason for this: the system supplier of their choice reduces the time to market and is also responsible for the entire system at the same time.

Posted in: White Papers, Communications, Electronics, Electronics & Computers, Electronics & Computers, Software
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How to Manage Heat in Modular, COTS Enclosures

As components shrink, embedded systems have made their way into smaller and more mobile applications. Systems need to withstand more intense vibration, shock and EMI parameters and still function effectively. All of this affects the ruggedization of enclosures.

Posted in: White Papers, Defense, Electronics, Manufacturing & Prototyping
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Using PXI to Build a High-Performance MEMS Microphone Testing System

The demand for increasing microphone signal quality from handheld mobile devices has led to the development of microphone signal processing technologies such as: HD audio, noise cancellation, active noise cancellation, beam forming, directional reception, stereo sound field reconstruction, and speech recognition. As well, devices incorporating multiple microphones are becoming more and more popular. Several newly released smart phones now integrate multiple MEMS (Micro Electrical-Mechanical System) microphones for improved background noise cancellation. All flagship smart phone models in introduced in 2015 featured three or more MEMS microphones to support HD audio, ambient noise cancellation, noise filtering, directional reception and speech recognition. Popularity of MEMS microphones is expected to grow.

Posted in: White Papers, Electronics, Data Acquisition, Sensors, Test & Measurement
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Noise Analysis in Precision Analog Designs

There are articles explaining component-level noise analysis for amplifiers or for analog-to-digital converters (ADCs), but very few that explain how to budget noise or analyze noise from the system level. This paper reviews the basics of noise analysis in precision designs, relates those calculations to system-level specifications such as sensitivity, dynamic range, and resolution, and answers some of the big questions about low-noise design.

Posted in: White Papers, Electronic Components, Electronics, Electronics & Computers, Semiconductors & ICs
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High-Bandwidth, Wide Field-of-View, Ultra-Sensitive, Radiation-Hardened, Short-Wave Infrared (SWIR) Receiver

Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland

Every LiDAR design faces the classic balancing act of signal versus noise. In order to maximize the range of a LiDAR, a receiver must amplify fractions of a micro-amp of photo current into a usable range for signal processing to occur, but without adding significant amounts of noise. Additionally, LiDAR receiver designs must exhibit very wide dynamic ranges because of the uncertainty in return signal amplitude. Meeting all these requirements in a small size, weight, and power form factor while keeping costs low is a major challenge.

Posted in: Briefs, Electronics, Electronics & Computers, Amplifiers, Lidar, Noise
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Magnetometer for Vectorized Field Sensing via Zero-Field, Spin-Dependent Recombination in Silicon Carbide Microelectronics

This self-calibrating, solid-state-based magnetometer is intended for miniaturized applications in high-temperature and high-radiation environments.

NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California

The proposed technology involves the sensitive detection of magnetic fields using the zero-field, spin-dependent recombination (SDR) phenomenon that naturally arises from atomic-scale, deep-level defects intrinsic to silicon carbide (SiC) microelectronics. The SDR phenomenon enables the fabrication of SiC-based magnetic field sensing diodes that are ideal for the development of miniaturized and purely electrical-based magnetometers.

Posted in: Briefs, Electronics, Electronics & Computers, Microelectromechanical devices, Magnetic materials, Test equipment and instrumentation
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Ethernet-to-HRDL Conversion Design

Dual Ethernet inputs are multiplexed into a single HRDL stream to accommodate Ethernet-based ISS instruments.

Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland

The International Space Station (ISS) uses a fiber optic High Rate Data Link (HRDL) standard for transferring data. ISS experiments, however, may prefer an Ethernet interface. This design allows ISS instruments to keep their Ethernet interface by converting the Ethernet data format into a format compatible with the ISS. The Express Logistics Carrier (ELC) incorporated this design on the ISS in 2010. The design was described with VHDL code. It has been implemented with an Actel RTAX Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA). This FPGA is part of the Express Logics Carrier (ELC) onboard the ISS.

Posted in: Briefs, Electronics, Electronics & Computers, Data exchange, Fiber optics, Spacecraft
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Flash LIDAR Emulator

Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia

The Flash LIDAR Emulator is a computer system designed to be functionally equivalent to a Flash LIDAR sensor camera. The system has the same hardware interfaces as the sensor, and produces images of comparable quality to the flash LIDAR sensor in real time (30 frames per second). The emulator is then used as a substitute for the LIDAR camera during development and testing of the software algorithms and hardware systems that interface with the camera. The emulator software was custom-developed entirely in-house, and integrates tools and techniques from several computer fields, including parallel processing, ray-tracing, geometric optimization, CPU optimization, CameraLink interfaces, lowlevel networking, and GPU-based general computing. The software was designed to run on an 8-processor Dell workstation with an NVIDIA graphics card to support general-purpose GPU computing, and CameraLink and network interfaces to support the hardware interfaces of the Flash LIDAR camera.

Posted in: Briefs, Electronics, Electronics & Computers, Computer simulation, Lidar
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Architecture for an Intermediate-Frequency Digital Downconversion and Data Distribution Network

Developed originally for Deep Space Network downlink receivers, applications include high-speed digital receivers for cellular networks.

NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California

NASA’s Deep Space Network (DSN) is looking to modernize aging downlink receivers for telemetry, tracking, and radio science. It is looking to replace multiple types of custom-built, special-purpose receivers with a unified receiver architecture that can support the various downlink data types. As part of this modernization, it is desired to only digitize the data once and then distribute the data using commercial switching network technology to multiple back-end receiver processing hardware and software. The main problem to be solved is how to distribute efficiently and flexibly high-bandwidth intermediate-frequency (100 to 600 MHz) digitized signals across a signal processing center for use in the DSN.

Posted in: Briefs, Electronics, Electronics & Computers, Antennas, Architecture, Computer software and hardware, Data exchange, Switches
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