Electronics & Computers

High-Performance Computing Drives A Growing, Evolving Internet of Things

Not too long ago, the idea of bringing intelligence to physical objects in our world and interconnecting them might have seemed like science fiction. Yet it is happening right now, as the phenomenon we call the Internet of Things (IoT) takes shape.

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The Self-Driving Car

Since the first demonstration of a radio-controlled car in 1925, the automotive industry has been seeking to build a reliable driverless vehicle. The safety of robot-quick reflexes and predictive algorithms, combined with the convenience of effortless travel, is appealing. For those who cannot physically drive, an autonomous car allows a new level of freedom. Of the 5.5 million car crashes per year in the United States, 93 per- cent of them have a human cause as the primary factor.1 A self-driving car could reduce such accidents and, as a bonus, use its predictive driving to reduce fuel consumption and traffic congestion.

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Technology-Independent RHBD Library Through Gate Array Approach

All gates in the library are based on one common cell. Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland As semiconductor technology nodes scale down, the limitation on polysilicon pitch makes it almost impossible to shrink libraries built for previous technologies. To design a library for a new technology, all of the cells have to basically start from scratch. Starting over for each technology node shrink is time-consuming and expensive. Further, obtaining space qualification for a technology node will require significant time and money. If a RHBD (radiation-hardened-by-design) library gates invention shares the same transistor structured as the SASIC (Structured Application-Specific Integrated Circuit), it will benefit from the existing qualification effort and high-performance advanced technology of the SASIC design flow.

Posted in: Electronics & Computers, Briefs

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Advanced Pulse Compression System and Testbed

Industrial applications include 3D machine vision systems that rely on radar for target identification and obstacle avoidance. Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland Detection of low-level water clouds from space is one of the outstanding challenges in radar remote sensing. Spaceborne remote sensing is the only means of assessing the distribution and variability of cloud cover on a global basis. Uncertainties in models of the Earth’s heating budget will persist until CloudSat and follow-on missions such as ACE (Advanced Composition Explorer), with enhanced radar capabilities, complete their missions. Detecting weak scatters at lower altitudes presents significant challenges. Millimeter-wave radars offer the only chance to measure these scatters from space. Unfortunately, the peak power available at Ka and W-band — desirable wavelengths for cloud remote sensing — does not provide adequate sensitivity at the resolution required. For many spaceborne radars, pulse compression techniques are used to overcome the limitations in peak power and take advantage of the average power available. But the backscatter from clouds, even at W-band, can be 7 to 8 orders of magnitude weaker than the surface backscatter. In order to use pulse compression techniques, peak range sidelobes need to be suppressed by upwards of 80 dB.

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Quasi-Static Electric Field Generator

This generator is an essential component for human-safe electric field imaging for military and civilian security applications. Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia This innovation is an electric field “illumination” system that is a companion component to the e-Sensor. This generator, when combined with the e-Sensor, enables a new, nondestructive inspection technology called electric field imaging (EFI) by producing spatially uniform, large-magnitude, quasi-static electric fields with human-safe currents (supporting only microampere currents) over large areas or large distances. These fields “illuminate” the objects to be inspected, and enable the EFI method to quantify the distortion of the applied electric field of the invention to detect, locate, and characterize materials present (liquid, solid, insulating, semiconducting, conducting, metallic, non-metallic, polymer, ceramic, composite, etc.), material variations, material damage, material age, and to identify hidden structures.

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Prosthetic Hands Give Patients A New Feel For Life

The human hand is a biomechanical marvel, but our hands are easy to take for granted because we depend on them all day long. People without all or part of their hands, however, know full well the value of what is missing as they struggle to perform even simple, everyday tasks.

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Determining an Effective Analog Sampling Rate

Q: How often should my equipment make measurements? A: This question often arises when people draft plans to automatically measure a physical quantity such as temperature, pressure, acidity, liquid level, and so on. You can approach this problem in several ways, from an educated guess to a mathematical analysis of your system. The examples that follow use temperature measurements because people measure temperature more than any other physical characteristic.

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