Electronics & Computers

'Solar Battery' Runs on Light and Air

Ohio State University researchers report that they have succeeded in combining a battery and a solar cell into one hybrid device.Key to the innovation is a mesh solar panel, which allows air to enter the battery, and a special process for transferring electrons between the solar panel and the battery electrode. Inside the device, light and oxygen enable different parts of the chemical reactions that charge the battery.The university will license the solar battery to industry, where Yiying Wu, professor of chemistry and biochemistry at Ohio State, says it will help tame the costs of renewable energy.“The state of the art is to use a solar panel to capture the light, and then use a cheap battery to store the energy,” Wu said. “We’ve integrated both functions into one device. Any time you can do that, you reduce cost.”During charging, light hits the mesh solar panel and creates electrons. Inside the battery, electrons are involved in the chemical decomposition of lithium peroxide into lithium ions and oxygen. The oxygen is released into the air, and the lithium ions are stored in the battery as lithium metal after capturing the electrons.When the battery discharges, it chemically consumes oxygen from the air to re-form the lithium peroxide. An iodide additive in the electrolyte acts as a “shuttle” that carries electrons, and transports them between the battery electrode and the mesh solar panel. The use of the additive represents a distinct approach on improving the battery performance and efficiency, the team said. The invention eliminates the loss of electricity that normally occurs when electrons have to travel between a solar cell and an external battery.SourceAlso: Learn about Full-Cell Evaluation for New Battery Chemistries.

Posted in: Batteries, Electronics & Computers, Electronic Components, Power Management, Energy Storage, Solar Power, Renewable Energy, Energy, Semiconductors & ICs, News

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Prosthetic Hands Give Patients A New Feel For Life

The human hand is a biomechanical marvel, but our hands are easy to take for granted because we depend on them all day long. People without all or part of their hands, however, know full well the value of what is missing as they struggle to perform even simple, everyday tasks.

Posted in: Electronics & Computers, White Papers

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Determining an Effective Analog Sampling Rate

Q: How often should my equipment make measurements? A: This question often arises when people draft plans to automatically measure a physical quantity such as temperature, pressure, acidity, liquid level, and so on. You can approach this problem in several ways, from an educated guess to a mathematical analysis of your system. The examples that follow use temperature measurements because people measure temperature more than any other physical characteristic.

Posted in: Electronics & Computers, White Papers

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Fourier Transform Spectrometer on Autonomous Self-Healing Hardware Platform

This liquid crystal waveguide-based platform provides self-healing for electronics in dangerous or hard-to-reach locations. NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California The autonomous self-healing (eDNA) hardware platform is a reconfigurable field-programmable gate-array (FPGA)-type platform developed by Technical University of Denmark (patent: WO/2010/060923). It is capable of autonomously reconfiguring itself in case a fault is detected and, thusly, restoring functionality at a fault-free location on the chip.

Posted in: Electronics & Computers, Briefs

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Low-Temperature-Compatible Electronics for a Miniature Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectrometer

The electronics have been demonstrated to function down to 77 K. NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California Missions to Titan are severely limited in available mass and power because spacecraft have to travel over a billion miles to get there, consuming large masses of propellants. Thus low-mass, low-power instruments are a high priority need for Titan missions. A miniature, liquid-phase, high-resolution, pulsed proton-NMR (1H-NMR) spectrometer was developed with low mass (1.5 kg), requiring low power, that can be operated cryogenically on the surface of Titan. This work focuses on new pulsed electronic circuits, optimized for a nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrometer for analysis of hydrocarbon liquids on Titan.

Posted in: Electronics & Computers, Briefs

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Ionospheric Delay Compensation Using a Scale Factor Based on an Altitude of a Receiver

Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, Houston, Texas GPS receivers must compensate for the delay a GPS signal experiences as it passes through the ionosphere in order to accurately determine the position of the receiver. Receivers limited to terrestrial operation may utilize the Klobuchar parameters transmitted by the GPS satellites to model the ionosphere and remove much of this delay. However, as a GPS receiver passes through the ionosphere, such as in a spacecraft or low-Earth orbit space station, the Klobuchar model no longer adequately approximates the correction to be applied. Other models exist, particularly the IRI 2007 model created by NASA et al., but these are too computationally complex to be performed in real time by common hardware available for space implementations. Moreover, although the IRI model provides extensive insight into the historical characteristics of the ionosphere, it is purely predictive for times beyond the publication date of the model. Still other models exist that can be used during post-processing but are also not available in real time.

Posted in: Electronics & Computers, Briefs

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Microelectronic Repair Techniques for Wafer-Level Integration

Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland Wafer-level integration was employed to mount the microshutter array for the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) and the detector-read-out hybrid for TIRS (Thermal Infrared Sensor). In the case of the JWST substrate, two conductors (polysilicon and aluminum) separated by a silicon oxide insulating layer were fabricated on a roughly 85-mm-square silicon wafer. The size of the substrate, the density and length of the conductive traces, and the requirement of zero shorts and zero opens on the finished device necessitated nearly impossible cleanroom requirements. Techniques were developed to repair the inevitable shorts and opens created during the wafer fabrication process. The wafers were repaired to zero shorts and zero opens without degradation of device performance.

Posted in: Electronics & Computers, Briefs

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