Environment

Emily Wilson, Scientist, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD

Emily Wilson developed a miniaturized laser heterodyne radiometer (mini-LHR) to measure the emissions of carbon dioxide and methane from melting permafrost. Wilson’s technology will be one of several NASA instruments sent to Alaska in June to analyze trace gases in the region’s atmosphere.

Posted in: Who's Who, Environmental Monitoring, Greenhouse Gases, Lasers & Laser Systems, Measuring Instruments, Monitoring

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A Large-Eddy Simulation Model of the Atmospheric Boundary Layer

The model includes the interaction of various physical processes, including turbulence, clouds, precipitation, and radiation. NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California The atmospheric boundary layer is the lowermost layer of the atmosphere and is host to a plethora of physical processes that significantly affect weather, climate, and air quality. In many applications, detailed information about the boundary layer is required at high temporal and spatial resolution. The main purpose of the current model is to provide accurate and finely resolved inspace and time predictions of the atmospheric boundary layer. High-resolution predictions of the boundary layer are typically pertinent in the development and evaluation of weather and climate models, in fundamental studies of atmospheric dynamics including clouds and precipitation, the dispersion of pollutants, and the development of remote sensing instruments.

Posted in: Briefs, Green Design & Manufacturing, Electronics & Computers, Simulation Software, Software, Simulation and modeling

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Hydrogen Peroxide for Microbial Growth Control in Space Potable Water Systems

This on-demand generator can provide the needed hydrogen peroxide levels for microbial growth control in potable water holding tanks and waterlines. Marshall Space Flight Center, Alabama NASA uses a biocide to prevent contamination of astronaut drinking water with harmful microorganisms. Concerns have arisen over existing biocides — that they’re inadequately effective, and may have toxic side effects when consumed. New microbial control methods are a priority. This need is addressed by using an electrochemical reactor for on-demand generation of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) solutions. The device uses onboard resources only. The method eliminates the need for resupply items (reducing launch costs), and reduces toxicity risk.

Posted in: Briefs, Aerospace, Green Design & Manufacturing, Physical Sciences, Containers

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Nonlinear Swept Frequency Technique for CO2 Measurements Using a CW Laser System

The measurements would be used to significantly reduce the uncertainties in global estimates of CO2, improve climate models, and close the carbon budget for improved forecasting and policy decisions. The U.S. National Research Council recently identified the need for a near-term space mission of Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days, and Seasons (ASCENDS). The primary objective of the ASCENDS mission is to make CO2 column measurements across the troposphere during the day and night over all latitudes and all seasons, and in the presence of scattered clouds. These measurements would be used to significantly reduce the uncertainties in global estimates of CO2 sources and sinks, provide an increased understanding of the connection between climate and CO2 exchange, improve climate models, and close the carbon budget for improved forecasting and policy decisions.

Posted in: Briefs, TSP, Green Design & Manufacturing, Greenhouse Gases, Lasers & Laser Systems, Test & Measurement, Carbon dioxide, Spacecraft

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Method of Water Regeneration From Waste and Cascade Distillation

Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, Houston, Texas Effective recovery of potable water from various streams and sources of wastewater, seawater, or contaminated water is a significant task for securing existence of human beings in space, terrestrial, and marine environments. Efficient purification of the wastewater is also a very important task for protection of the global environment. The existing and known methods of recovery of clean water from the wastewater are technically complicated, have low energy efficiency, consume processing material, and are bulky, heavy, and not cost effective.

Posted in: Briefs, Green Design & Manufacturing, Recycling Technologies, Physical Sciences, Water reclamation

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Microcapsule Method Captures Carbon

Researchers has developed a novel class of materials that enable a safer, cheaper, and more energy-efficient process for removing greenhouse gas from power-plant emissions. The team, led by scientists from Harvard University and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, employed a microfluidic assembly technique to produce microcapsules that contain liquid sorbents, or absorbing materials, encased in highly permeable polymer shells. The capsules have significant performance advantages over the carbon-absorbing materials used in current capture and sequestration technology.The new technique employs an abundant and environmentally benign sorbent: sodium carbonate, which is kitchen-grade baking soda. The microencapsulated carbon sorbents (MECS) achieve an order-of-magnitude increase in CO2 absorption rates compared to sorbents currently used in carbon capture. The carbon sorbents are produced using a double-capillary device in which the flow rates of three fluids — a carbonate solution combined with a catalyst for enhanced CO2 absorption, a photo-curable silicone that forms the capsule shell, and an aqueous solution — can be independently controlled.The MECS-based approach could also be tailored to industrial processes like steel and cement production, which are significant greenhouse gas sources.SourceRead other Materials tech briefs.

Posted in: News, Green Design & Manufacturing, Greenhouse Gases, Remediation Technologies, Materials

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Aircraft with Hybrid Engine Can Recharge in Flight

Researchers from the University of Cambridge, in association with Boeing, have successfully tested the first aircraft to be powered by a parallel hybrid-electric propulsion system, where an electric motor and gas engine work together to drive the propeller. The demonstrator aircraft uses up to 30% less fuel than a comparable plane with a gas-only engine. The aircraft is also able to recharge its batteries in flight, the first time this has been achieved.

Posted in: News, Aerospace, Aviation, Batteries, Electronics & Computers, Power Management, Green Design & Manufacturing, Motion Control, Motors & Drives, Power Transmission

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