Imaging

Imaging Space System Architectures Using a Granular Medium as a Primary Concentrator

Higher-resolution optics provide improved hyperspectral imaging for ocean and land monitoring, as well as exoplanet detection. NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California Typically, the cost of a space observatory is driven by the size and mass of the primary aperture. Generally, a monolithic aperture is much heavier and complex to fabricate (hence, more costly) than an aperture of the same size but composed of much smaller units. Formation flying technology, as applied to swarm systems in space, is an emerging discipline.

Posted in: Physical Sciences, Imaging, Briefs, TSP

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Novel Hemispherical Dynamic Camera for EVAs

A novel optical design for imaging systems is able to achieve an ultra-wide field of view (UW-FOV) of up to 208°. The design uses an integrated optical design (IOD). The UW-FOV optics design reduces the wasted pixels by 49% when compared against the baseline fisheye lens. The IOD approach results in a design with superior optical performance and minimal distortion.

Posted in: Physical Sciences, Imaging, Briefs

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Reducing Drift in Stereo Visual Odometry

The drift was reduced from an uncorrected 47 cm to just 7 cm. Visual odometry (VO) refers to the estimation of vehicle motion using onboard cameras. A common mode of operation utilizes stereovision to tri angulate a set of image features, track these over time, and infer vehicle motion by computing the apparent point cloud motion with respect to the cameras. It has been observed that stereo VO is subject to drift over time.

Posted in: Imaging, Briefs

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Reducing Drift in Stereo Visual Odometry

The drift was reduced from an uncorrected 47 cm to just 7 cm. Visual odometry (VO) refers to the estimation of vehicle motion using onboard cameras. A common mode of operation utilizes stereovision to tri angulate a set of image features, track these over time, and infer vehicle motion by computing the apparent point cloud motion with respect to the cameras. It has been observed that stereo VO is subject to drift over time.

Posted in: Imaging, Briefs

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Resource-Constrained Application of Support Vector Machines to Imagery

Fast computation of the SVM decision function over an image using minimal RAM. Machine learning techniques have shown considerable promise for automating common visual inspection tasks. For example, Support Vector Machine (SVM) classifiers that have been learned from labeled training data deliver strong detection performance both for finding human faces in photographs and locating geologic landforms such as craters and volcanoes in planetary images gathered by spacecraft. However, SVMs are computationally expensive to apply to an image using the traditional spatial scanning method in which a rectangular window is slid across the image one pixel at a time and the SVM is evaluated on each patch of pixels under the window. The new software uses small fast Fourier transforms (FFTs) and the overlap- and-add technique from signal processing to quickly and efficiently compute the exact SVM decision function over an entire image using minimal random access memory (RAM).

Posted in: Imaging, Briefs

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Visual Image Sensor Organ Replacement

This innovation is a system that augments human vision through a technique called “Sensing Super-position” using a Visual Instrument Sensory Organ Replacement (VISOR) device. The VISOR device translates visual and other sensors (i.e., thermal) into sounds to enable very difficult sensing tasks.

Posted in: Bio-Medical, Software, Imaging & Diagnostics, Biosensors, Imaging, Displays/Monitors/HMIs, Sensors, Medical, Briefs, MDB

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Support Routines for In Situ Image Processing

This software consists of a set of application programs that support ground-based image processing for in situ missions. These programs represent a collection of utility routines that perform miscellaneous functions in the context of the ground data system. Each one fulfills some specific need as determined via operational experience. The most unique aspect to these programs is that they are integrated into the large, in situ image processing system via the PIG (Planetary Image Geometry) library. They work directly with space in situ data, understanding the appropriate image meta-data fields and updating them properly. The programs themselves are completely multimission; all mission dependencies are handled by PIG.

Posted in: Physical Sciences, Software, Imaging, Briefs, TSP

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Automatic Calibration of an Airborne Imaging System to an Inertial Navigation Unit

This software automatically calibrates a camera or an imaging array to an inertial navigation system (INS) that is rigidly mounted to the array or imager. In effect, it recovers the coordinate frame transformation between the reference frame of the imager and the reference frame of the INS.

Posted in: Physical Sciences, Software, Imaging, Briefs

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Planetary Data Systems (PDS) Imaging Node Atlas II

The Planetary Image Atlas (PIA) is a Rich Internet Application (RIA) that serves planetary imaging data to the science community and the general public. PIA also utilizes the USGS Unified Planetary Coordinate system (UPC) and the on-Mars map server.

Posted in: Physical Sciences, Software, Imaging, Briefs

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Micro-Endoscope as Thin as a Human Hair

Single fiber endoscope increases resolution fourfold over previous similar devices. Engineers at Stanford University have developed and demonstrated a prototype single-fiber endoscope that, they say, quadruples the resolution over existing designs, which might lead to the development of needle-thin, minimally invasive endoscopes able to view features out of reach of today’s instruments.

Posted in: Bio-Medical, Imaging & Diagnostics, Monitoring & Testing, Electronics, Optics/Photonics, Imaging, Photonics, Fiber Optics, Optics, Medical, Diagnostics, Briefs, MDB

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