Imaging

Large, High-Speed, Precision Optic Indexing Wheel

New wheel would enable more observational modes to be done in a given time. NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California Optical indexing wheels, sometimes called “filter wheels,” are used to locate various optics or filters in a beam path to change the observational mode. Large wheels a half-meter in size or larger typically operate slowly, although the loss of a few seconds of time moving from one observation mode to another is not an issue. In certain rare applications, it is desirable to index between a large selection of optics at a faster rate. If the device is intended for space use, the power requirement becomes critical as well. Current indexing wheel designs typically use a central direct-drive motor to avoid the complication of gears, but these designs will draw too much power and work too slowly for certain applications. They also may require an ultrahigh bit encoder to achieve required positioning accuracy. Designers of such devices would readily admit that speed and power efficiency are both increased through the use of a gear reduction, but generally see the use of gears as problematic.

Posted in: Briefs, Imaging, Photonics, Wheels, Optics, Gears

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Web-Based Search Service to Support Imaging Spectrometer Instrument Operations

An adaptive matched-filter approach compensates for the context and background characteristics of each scene. NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California Imaging spectrometers yield rich and informative data products, but interpreting them demands time and expertise. There is a continual need for new algorithms and methods for rapid firstdraft analyses to assist analysts during instrument operations. Intelligent data analyses can summarize scenes to draft geologic maps, searching images to direct operator attention to key features. This validates data quality while facilitating rapid tactical decision-making to select follow-up targets. Ideally, these algorithms would operate in seconds, never grow bored, and be free from observation bias about the kinds of mineralogy that will be found.

Posted in: Briefs, TSP, Imaging, Photonics, Mathematical analysis, Internet, Spectroscopy, Data management

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Hermetic Phototube Housing

Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland This innovation is a hermetically sealed case or very small chamber. A photomultiplier tube (PMT) is mounted inside the chamber. The circuit board is also installed inside the chamber with appropriate feedthroughs for signals. An adapter/floating mount called the phototube to light pipe system mount (PLPSM) allows the hermetic PMT housing to attach to the light guide.

Posted in: Briefs, TSP, Imaging, Photonics, Containers, Mountings

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Design, Fabrication, and Test of WFIRST/AFTA GRISM Assembly

Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland This work originated with the Wide Field InfraRed Survey Telescope (WFIRST) slitless spectrometer design (GRISM assembly), which attempted to follow the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) method of employing a singleelement GRISM as a slitless spectroscope. However, WFIRST’s field of view (FOV) is ~100x of HST’s wide field camera, and the spectral resolution is ~5x higher with a relatively faster f/8 system. The design turned out to be extremely difficult using only one diffractive surface. Even with many freeform optical elements, and putting a grating on a toroid surface, the image performance was still not satisfactory.

Posted in: Briefs, TSP, Imaging, Photonics, Mirrors, Optics, Spectroscopy, Product development

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Spinal Ultrasound Just-in-Time Training Tool

This software facilitates ultrasound imaging of the cervical and lumbar spine by crewmembers in-flight. Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, Houston, Texas Back pain and injury are recognized risks that can affect the well-being and performance of crewmembers during missions, as well as their long-term health. Spine elongation is a documented effect of microgravity, back pain is a common occurrence in early flight, and the post-flight incidence of spinal injury is higher than the population average. These observations suggest that spinal unloading results in a transition to a new set point for the spine, and causes discomfort and an increased risk of injury.

Posted in: Briefs, TSP, Imaging, Photonics, Personnel, Injury causation, Spacecraft

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Wide-Spectrum Organic Mass Spectrometer Using Far-Ultraviolet Ionization

Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, Houston, Texas Two-step laser desorption/photoionization mass spectrometry (L2MS) represents a powerful tool for the organic analysis of astromaterials. The technique has high sensitivity and requires little to no sample preparation.

Posted in: Briefs, TSP, Imaging, Photonics, Lasers, Spectroscopy, Particulate matter (PM), Test equipment and instrumentation

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AEGIS Imaging Software Unearths Mars Rocks

In mid-October, a NASA-developed software called AEGIS was uploaded to the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rover. The AEGIS technology, winner of NASA’s 2011 Software of the Year award, will soon allow scientists on the ground to more easily identify interesting rocks and other terrain features on the Red Planet.

Posted in: Articles, Imaging, Photonics, Computer software and hardware, Imaging and visualization, Terrain, Spacecraft

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Hybrid Technology Advances Laser Material Processing

MultiWave Hybrid Technology* combines multiple laser beams with various wavelengths into a single coaxial laser beam. There are existing systems using two different laser wavelengths independently, but this is the first technology capable of combining multiple wavelengths into a single beam, providing a valuable tool for the development of novel material processing technologies.

Posted in: Articles, Imaging, Photonics, Lasers, Product development, Cutting, Polymers, Steel

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Manufacturing OLED Lighting

Organic Light Emitting Diode (“OLED”) lighting panels are thin planar area light sources that are naturally diffuse, low glare, high color rendering, cool to the touch, highly energy efficient and highly controllable. Together with LED light sources, they compose the solid state lighting technologies that are replacing over 100 years of bulb and tube lighting technologies, just as solid state electronics have replaced the bulbs and tubes used in electronic devices such as radios, computers and displays.

Posted in: Application Briefs, Imaging, Photonics, Light emitting diodes (LEDs)

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‘Internal Fingerprint’ Imaging Offers Deeper Authentication

A new technology developed by researchers from The Langevin Institute (Paris, France) enables subsurface imaging of the finger. The “internal fingerprint,” according to the device’s creators, could provide cheaper, more secure authentication than traditional scanners.

Posted in: Application Briefs, Imaging, Photonics, Imaging and visualization, Body regions

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