Imaging

Spatially Aberrated Spectral Filtering for High-Performance Spectral Imaging

This innovation has application in the biomedical research, semiconductor, and analysis/characterization fields. NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California High-performance thermal imagers like Mars Climate Sounder (MCS) on the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) and the Diviner Lunar Radiometer Experiment on the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) currently use a three-mirror anastigmat (TMA) optical design to image remote targets. A TMA telescope is built with three curved mirrors, enabling it to minimize all three main optical aberrations: spherical aberration, coma, and astigmatism. This is primarily used to enable wide fields of view, much larger than possible with telescopes with just one or two curved surfaces.

Posted in: Briefs, Imaging, Mirrors, Imaging and visualization, Spacecraft

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A Common-Mode Digital Holographic Microscope

This instrument has no moving parts and allows scientists to image in 3D and in real time. NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California Digital holography is a fast-growing field in optics, recently spurred by the advent of large-format digital cameras and high-speed computers. This method provides a time-series of volumetric information about a sample, but the instrument itself has no moving parts. It does not compromise performance such as image quality and spatial resolution. However, these systems are typically implemented as optical interferometers with two separate beam paths: one is the reference beam and the other is the science beam. Interferometers are sensitive instruments that are subject to misalignment, and they will have significantly reduced performance in the presence of mechanical vibrations.

Posted in: Briefs, Imaging, Microscopy

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Introduction to Machine Vision

A guide to automating process & quality improvements Get the basics of how machine vision technology works and why it's the right choice for automating process and quality improvements. The Introduction to Machine Vision whitepaper is the first step to understanding, what is machine vision, what kind of problems does it solve, what components do you need to build a vision system, how to get the most out of your vision system, and more. Read this whitepaper to see why automated inspection is vastly superior to manual techniques.

Posted in: White Papers, Machine Vision, Machinery & Automation

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Boosting Machine Vision with Built-in FPGA Image Preprocessing

Since imaging processing tasks can consume major CPU resources in machine vision applications, increasing processing performance within size constraints is, accordingly, a common challenge for solution providers. The following discusses the efficacy of FPGA in addressing such performance shortcomings, presents the image processing tasks most suitable for FPGA, and compares the capabilities of CPU and FPGA in operation. A built -in FPGA image preprocessing solution supporting machine vision app lications is then presented.

Posted in: White Papers, Imaging, Optics, Photonics, Machinery & Automation, Robotics

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NASA’s Infrared Sensor Spots Near-Earth Asteroids

The Near-Earth Object Camera (NEOCam) is part of a proposed NASA mission to find potentially hazardous asteroids. In a Q&A with Photonics & Imaging Technology, NEOCam principal investigator Amy Mainzer ex plains how the NEOCam chip, a stamp-sized mega pixel infrared sensor, detects the faint heat emitted by near-Earth objects circling the Sun.

Posted in: Articles, Features, Imaging, Photonics, Imaging and visualization, Sensors and actuators, Spacecraft

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Advanced Digital Microscopes Providing Simple Solutions to Common Microscopy Issues

Thanks to a combination of high-quality optics and advanced digital imaging technology, today’s newest digital microscopes provide efficient solutions to a variety of common microscope challenges faced by users of conventional optical and digital microscopes. The following represent 10 conventional microscope issues and 10 solutions made possible with current digital microscope technology.

Posted in: Articles, Features, Imaging, Photonics, Microscopy

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New Algorithm Reveals Underground Water Levels

Researchers from Stanford University have used satellite data and a new computer algorithm to gauge groundwater levels in Colorado’s San Luis Valley agricultural basin. The technique "fills in" underground water levels in areas where quality data had been previously unavailable.

Posted in: News, Imaging, Visualization Software, Antennas, RF & Microwave Electronics

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Compact, Lightweight, Athermal, Nanocomposite Telescopes with Freeform Optics

Marshall Space Flight Center, Alabama Small space missions such as CubeSats frequently require telescopes with highly sophisticated optical systems that are also low in mass and cost. The very limited spacecraft volume and mass limits also preclude adjustments to maintain critical alignment with change in temperature. Existing systems, especially those that employ folded optical paths with freeform optics, are expensive to fabricate. The optics, and support and metering structures, are also heavy due to the use of high-density material such as glass, aluminum, or nickel.

Posted in: Briefs, Tech Briefs, Imaging, Photonics, Optics, Composite materials, Nanomaterials, Satellites

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One-Micron (1064-nm) Planar External Cavity Laser (PLANEX)

Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland A highly reliable, very low-phase and low-amplitude-noise laser is required as an oscillator for the LISA mission. A commercial product made by Redfern Integrated Optics met these requirements (1550 nm PLANEX External Cavity Laser), but it operated at 1.5 microns, not the required LISA wavelength of 1 micron. An ultra-low-noise External Cavity Laser was produced at a wavelength of 1 micron, and was integrated in a butterfly package. The goal is to eventually use this laser in the LISA and GRACE-II missions.

Posted in: Briefs, Tech Briefs, Imaging, Photonics, Lasers, Product development, Packaging

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Invertible Time Invariant Linear Filtering (InTILF) Method for Pattern Detection and Modeling of Stochastic One- or Two- Dimensional Data

This tool can analyze and model surface metrology data for polishing-tool fabricators. Marshall Space Flight Center, Alabama X-ray astronomy offers the opportunity to observe important phenomena, including the early accretion of massive black holes and detecting diffuse ionized intergalactic gas that is heated to X-ray temperatures (>106). One of the technical challenges facing X-ray astronomy is fabricating optics that are properly shaped and smooth enough to produce quality images. Surface defects on the order of the wavelength of the observed spectrum and up to the size of the optical surface must be polished out of the mirrors without leaving a de - tectable pattern because the detectable signal is on the order of magnitude of the noise. This leads to a cycle of polishing and metrology that adds time and expense to optics fabrication.

Posted in: Briefs, Tech Briefs, Imaging, Photonics, Mirrors, Optics, Metal finishing

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