Information Science

Validation of Proposed Metrics for Two-Body Abrasion Scratch Test Analysis Standards

In principle, any scratch can be analyzed by this method. Abrasion of mechanical components and fabrics by soil on Earth is typically minimized by the effects of atmosphere and water. Potentially abrasive particles lose sharp and pointed geometrical features through erosion. In environments where such erosion does not exist, such as the vacuum of the Moon, particles retain sharp geometries associated with fracturing of their parent particles by micrometeorite impacts. The relationship between hardness of the abrasive and that of the material being abraded is well understood, such that the abrasive ability of a material can be estimated as a function of the ratio of the hardness of the two interacting materials. Knowing the abrasive nature of an environment (abrasive)/construction material is crucial to designing durable equipment for use in such surroundings.

Posted in: Test & Measurement, Information Sciences, Briefs

Read More >>

Measuring and Estimating Normalized Contrast in Infrared Flash Thermography

Combining temperature contrast analysis with pixel intensity contrast analysis yields better results in characterizing void-like anomalies. Infrared flash thermography (IRFT) is used to detect void-like flaws in a test object. The IRFT technique involves heating up the part surface using a flash of flash lamps. The post-flash evolution of the part surface temperature is sensed by an IR camera in terms of pixel intensity of image pixels. The IR technique involves recording of the IR video image data and analysis of the data using the normalized pixel intensity and temperature contrast analysis method for characterization of void-like flaws for depth and width.

Posted in: Test & Measurement, Information Sciences, Briefs

Read More >>

Mixed Linear/Square-Root Encoded Single-Slope Ramp Provides Low-Noise ADC With High Linearity for Focal Plane Arrays

This technique is applicable to all scientific imagers and could be used by commercial camera vendors. Single-slope analog-to-digital converters (ADCs) are particularly useful for on-chip digitization in focal plane arrays (FPAs) because of their inherent monotonicity, relative simplicity, and efficiency for column-parallel applications, but they are comparatively slow. Square-root encoding can allow the number of code values to be reduced without loss of signal- to-noise ratio (SNR) by keeping the quantization noise just below the signal shot noise. This encoding can be implemented directly by using a quadratic ramp. The reduction in the number of code values can substantially increase the quantization speed. However, in an FPA, the fixed pattern noise (FPN) limits the use of small quantization steps at low signal levels. If the zero-point is adjusted so that the lowest column is onscale, the other columns, including those at the center of the distribution, will be pushed up the ramp where the quantization noise is higher.

Posted in: Information Sciences, Briefs

Read More >>

X-Ray Detection and Processing Models for Spacecraft Navigation and Timing

Combining different pulsar measurements provides accurate overall navigation for deep space vehicles. The current primary method of deepspace navigation is the NASA Deep Space Network (DSN). High-performance navigation is achieved using Delta Differential One-Way Range techniques that utilize simultaneous observations from multiple DSN sites, and incorporate observations of quasars near the line-of-sight to a spacecraft in order to improve the range and angle measurement accuracies.

Posted in: Information Sciences, Briefs

Read More >>

RUSHMAPS: Real-time Uploadable Spherical Harmonic Moment Analysis for Particle Spectrometers

High-performing hybrid systems embed unprecedented amounts of onboard processing power. RUSHMAPS is a new onboard data reduction scheme that gives real-time access to key science parameters (e.g. moments) of a class of heliophysics science and/or solar system exploration investigation that includes plasma particle spectrometers (PPS), but requires moments reporting (density, bulk-velocity, temperature, pressure, etc.) of higherlevel quality, and tolerates a low-pass (variable quality) spectral representation of the corresponding particle velocity distributions, such that telemetry use is minimized. The proposed methodology trades access to the full-resolution velocity distribution data, saving on telemetry, for real-time access to both the moments and an adjustable-quality (increasing quality increases volume) spectral representation of distribution functions.

Posted in: Information Sciences, Briefs

Read More >>

Automated 3D Damaged Cavity Model Builder for Lower Surface Acreage Tile on Orbiter

The principles may be applicable to commercial space vehicles. The 3D Automated Thermal Tool for Damaged Acreage Tile Math Model builder was developed to perform quickly and accurately 3D thermal analyses on damaged lower surface acreage tiles and structures beneath the damaged locations on a Space Shuttle Orbiter. The 3D model builder created both TRASYS geometric math models (GMMs) and SINDA thermal math models (TMMs) to simulate an idealized damaged cavity in the damaged tile(s). The GMMs are processed in TRASYS to generate radiation conductors between the surfaces in the cavity. The radiation conductors are inserted into the TMMs, which are processed in SINDA to generate temperature histories for all of the nodes on each layer of the TMM.

Posted in: Information Sciences, Briefs

Read More >>

Powered Descent Guidance With General Thrust-Pointing Constraints

The Powered Descent Guidance (PDG) algorithm and software for generating Mars pinpoint or precision landing guidance profiles has been enhanced to incorporate thrust-pointing constraints. Pointing constraints would typically be needed for onboard sensor and navigation systems that have specific field-of-view requirements to generate valid ground proximity and terrain-relative state measurements.

Posted in: Information Sciences, Briefs

Read More >>