Manufacturing & Prototyping

Method to Improve the Synthesis Process of High-Purity Bulk Multi-Element Compounds

Marshall Space Flight Center, Alabama Multi-element compounds have been used ubiquitously in various applications, including electronics, optics, opto-electronics, thermoelectrics, superconductivity, and the recently developed application of spintronics. Besides being the main components of some of these devices, the bulk form of these compounds is needed as a standard for fundamental property characterizations as well as the starting materials for thin-film deposition. Hence, the chemical purity and crystalline quality of these bulk compounds are critical for the applications.

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Laser Subdivision of the Genesis Concentrator Target Sample 60000

Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, Houston, Texas A need arose for approximately 1 cm2 of a diamond-like-carbon (DLC) concentrator target for the analysis of solar wind nitrogen isotopes. The original target was a circular quadrant with a radius of 3.1 cm; however, the piece did not survive intact when the spacecraft suffered an anomalous landing upon returning to Earth. An estimated 75% of the DLC target was recovered in at least 18 fragments. The largest fragment, Genesis sample 60000, was designated for this allocation, and is the first sample to be subdivided using a laser scribing system. Laser subdivision has associated risks, including thermal diffusion of the implant if heating occurs, and unintended breakage during cleavage. In order to minimize the possibility of unintended breakage of the actual target wafer during subdivision, a careful detailed study involving numerous laser scribing plans was undertaken. The innovation described here involves the results of this study that yielded a cutting plan essentially guaranteeing ~100% cleaving success of this precious space-exposed wafer.

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Fabrication of an Integrated Photonic Waveguide Joint in Micromachined Silicon

This technology could be used in any MEMS or micromachined structure that requires multiple levels of topography. Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland High-aspect-ratio silicon structures are necessary components in many MEMS (microelectromechanical systems). Aspect ratio is defined as the ratio of the height of the structure to its lateral width. The structures are typically fabricated through bulk micromachining steps such as deep reactive ion etching. In some cases, multiple levels of high-aspect-ratio structures are required. For instance, one may want to etch completely through a silicon wafer to thermally isolate a bolometer or provide waveguide coupling to an antenna defined on an insulating membrane, and at the same time have integrated high-topology structures required for microwave coupling or filtering. Definition of the structures typically uses photolithographic technology. But for high-aspect-ratio structures, spin cast resist becomes difficult to incorporate due to the non-uniform thickness of the resist around tall structures. One can cast very thick layers of photoresist, but this limits the minimum feature size, and additionally, very thick layers of photoresist are difficult to work with due to solvent release and moisture that can cause the resist to crack or swell. For electromagnetic reasons, the structures would preferably be made from conductive material such as metal or degeneratively doped silicon. The objective of this work was to incorporate multiple levels of conductive high-aspectratio structures with standard micromachining processes.

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Very Large Inflatable Antenna Structures

This methodology enables production of very large, but lightweight, structures in space. Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia Future space exploration past Earth orbit has a significant need for manufacturing in space beyond simple assembly of prefabricated parts. The next generation of very large aperture antennas will exceed the size achievable with conventional folding mesh technologies and new concepts are needed to support football-field-size structures. Technologies to address the problem have been developed using the formation of polyurethanes in a vacuum environment. Large inflatable structures can be stabilized by the formation of polyurethane foams of controlled density. For use in a vacuum environment, the availability of oligomeric precursors is important. Low-molecular-weight components would immediately evaporate, changing the stoichiometry of the reaction and potentially contaminate a space environment, but high-molecular-weight precursors have a much more limited range of properties.

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Method for Fabricating Metallic Panels with Deep Stiffener Sections

This method is a rapid, more environmentally friendly, cost-effective process. Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia This innovation integrates existing highperformance metallic materials and manufacturing technologies (all of which are now certified and used to produce thinner stiffened panels for launch vehicle structures) in a novel manner to allow fabrication of more structurally efficient panels with stiffeners that are substantially deeper than existing plate stock materials.

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Robust, High-Temperature Containment Cartridges for Microgravity

Other potential applications include chemical processing, heat pipes, power generation equipment, nuclear components, and automotive. Marshall Space Flight Center, Alabama Robust, high-temperature containment cartridges are needed for processing materials science experiments in microgravity. In general, the refractory metals (Nb, Ta, Mo, W, Re) possess the chemical inertness and high melting temperatures desired. Of these materials, niobium and tantalum alloys have been the materials of choice due to their low ductile to brittle transition temperatures, which allow deep-draw forming into cylindrical shapes. The high cost of tantalum and niobium, along with the desire for cartridges resistant to molten zinc and usable to 1,500 °C, demonstrates the need for alternative cartridge materials. Two candidate materials are molybdenum and tungsten alloys. Both have high melting temperatures and cost an order of magnitude less than tantalum and niobium.

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Method for Insertion of Carbon Fiber Through the Thickness of Dense Dry Fiber Preform

Heat shields for re-entry vehicles, and jet engine exhaust components are two potential applications. Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, California Creation of a structural joint for a heat shield for extreme entry environments requires structural fibers penetrating through the thickness of the shield at joint locations. The structural fibers must be made of carbon to withstand extremely high temperatures, i.e. 2000 ºC. Carbon fibers, due to their relatively high modulus (stiffness), are easily damaged and broken when handled by a conventional sewing machine. Special coatings such as nylon are required to increase the durability of the fiber to enable its use in a sewing or tufting process.

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