Manufacturing & Prototyping

Droplet-Based Production of Liposomes

A process for making monodisperse liposomes having lipid bilayer membranes involves fewer, simpler process steps than do related prior methods. First, a microfluidic, cross-junction droplet generator is used to produce vesicles comprising aqueous-solution droplets contained in single-layer lipid membranes. The vesicles are collected in a lipid-solvent mix that is at most partially soluble in water and is less dense than is water. A layer of water is dispensed on top of the solvent. By virtue of the difference in densities, the water sinks to the bottom and the solvent floats to the top. The vesicles, which have almost the same density as that of water, become exchanged into the water instead of floating to the top. As there are excess lipids in the solvent solution, in order for the vesicles to remain in the water, the addition of a second lipid layer to each vesicle is energetically favored.

Posted in: Briefs, MDB, Briefs, Manufacturing & Prototyping, Coatings & Adhesives, Materials, Bio-Medical, Medical
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Modal Vibration Analysis of Large Castings

Massive objects can be tested in situ, without precisely controlling boundary conditions.

The art of experimental modal vibration analysis (MVA) has been extended to apply to large castings. This extension was made to enable the use of experimental MVA as a relatively inexpensive, simple means of assessing the internal structural integrity of tread shoes of crawler transporters used to move spacecraft to the launch pad at Kennedy Space Center. Each tread shoe is made from cast iron and weighs about a ton (has a mass ≈907 kg). The present extended version of experimental MVA could also be applied to other large castings. It could be especially useful to manufacturers as a means of rapidly discriminating against large castings that contain unacceptably large concentrations of internal defects.

Posted in: Briefs, TSP, Manufacturing & Prototyping, Wheels, Finite element analysis, Ground support, Iron, Vibration, Spacecraft
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Structural/Radiation-Shielding Epoxies

Pendant aliphatic groups are incorporated as integral parts of molecular structures.

A development effort was directed toward formulating epoxy resins that are useful both as structural materials and as shielding against heavy-ion radiation. Hydrogen is recognized as the best element for absorbing heavy-ion radiation, and high- hydrogen-content polymers are now in use as shielding materials. However, high- hydrogen-content polymers (e.g. polyethylene) are typically not good structural materials. In contrast, aromatic polymers, which contain smaller amounts of hydrogen, often have the strength necessary for structural materials. Accordingly, the present development effort is based on the concept that an ideal structural/heavy-ion-radiation-shielding material would be a polymer that contains sufficient hydrogen (e.g., in the form of aliphatic molecular groups) for radiation shielding and has sufficient aromatic content for structural integrity.

Posted in: Briefs, TSP, Manufacturing & Prototyping
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Alternative Packaging for Back-Illuminated Imagers

Electrical contacts are made accessible from the back side.

An alternative scheme has been conceived for packaging of silicon- based back-illuminated, back- side-thinned complementary metal oxide/semiconductor (CMOS) and charge-coupled-device image-detector integrated circuits, including an associated fabrication process. This scheme and process are complementary to those described in “Making a Back- Illuminated Imager With Back-Side Connections” (NPO-42839), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 32, No. 7 (July 2008), page 38.

Posted in: Briefs, Manufacturing & Prototyping
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Diamond Machining of an Off-Axis Biconic Aspherical Mirror

Complex shapes can be produced at relatively low costs.

Two diamond-machining methods have been developed as part of an effort to design and fabricate an off-axis, biconic ellipsoidal, concave aluminum mirror for an infrared spectrometer at the Kitt Peak National Observatory. Beyond this initial application, the methods can be expected to enable satisfaction of requirements for future instrument mirrors having increasingly complex (including asymmetrical), precise shapes that, heretofore, could not readily be fabricated by diamond machining or, in some cases, could not be fabricated at all.

Posted in: Briefs, TSP, Manufacturing & Prototyping
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Laser Ablation Increases PEM/Catalyst Interfacial Area

Increased interfacial area is expected to result in improved fuel-cell performance.

An investigational method of improving the performance of a fuel cell that contains a polymer-electrolyte membrane (PEM) is based on the concept of roughening the surface of the PEM, prior to deposition of a thin layer of catalyst, in order to increase the PEM/catalyst interfacial area and thereby increase the degree of utilization of the catalyst. The roughening is done by means of laser ablation under carefully controlled conditions. Next, the roughened membrane surface is coated with the thin layer of catalyst (which is typically platinum), then sandwiched between two electrode/catalyst structures to form a membrane/electrode assembly.

Posted in: Briefs, TSP, Manufacturing & Prototyping
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Composite Layer Manufacturing With Fewer Interruptions

An improved version of composite layer manufacturing (CLM) has been invented. CLM is a type of solid freeform fabrication (SFF) — an automated process in which a three-dimensional object is built up, point-by-point, through extrusion of a matrix/fiber composite-material precursor. The elements of SFF include (1) preparing a matrix resin in a form in which it will solidify subsequently, (2) mixing fibers and matrix material to form a continuous preimpregnated tow (also called “towpreg”), and (3) dispensing the towpreg from a nozzle onto a base while moving the nozzle to form the dispensed material into a series of patterned layers of controlled thickness.

Posted in: Briefs, Manufacturing & Prototyping, Additive manufacturing, Fabrication, Resins, Nozzles
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Improved Photoresist Coating for Making CNT Field Emitters

This technique could contribute to development of cold cathodes for diverse applications.

An improved photoresist-coating technique has been developed for use in the fabrication of carbon-nanotube- (CNT)- based field emitters of the type described in “Fabrication of Improved Carbon- Nanotube Field Emitters” (NPO-44996), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 32, No. 4 (April 2008), page 50. The improved photoresist- coating technique overcomes what, heretofore, has been a major difficulty in the fabrication process. This technique is expected to contribute to the realization of high-efficiency field emitters (cold cathodes) for diverse systems and devices that could include gas-ionization systems, klystrons, flat-panel display devices, cathode-ray tubes, scanning electron microscopes, and x-ray tubes.

Posted in: Briefs, Manufacturing & Prototyping, Fabrication, Coatings, colorants, and finishes, Nanomaterials
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Improved Joining of Metal Components to Composite Structures

Uncured composite material is intertwined with metal studs, then cured.

Systems requirements for complex spacecraft drive design requirements that lead to structures, components, and/or enclosures of a multi-material and multifunctional design. The varying physical properties of aluminum, tungsten, Invar, or other high-grade aerospace metals when utilized in conjunction with lightweight composites multiply system level solutions. These multi-material designs are largely dependent upon effective joining techniques, which create a “monolithic,” well-integrated and seamlessly functional structure.

Posted in: Briefs, Manufacturing & Prototyping, Joining, Composite materials, Materials properties, Metals, Jet engines, Spacecraft
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Machined Titanium Heat-Pipe Wick Structure

Wicks are fabricated separately, then inserted in tubes.

Wick structures fabricated by machining of titanium porous material are essential components of lightweight titanium/ water heat pipes of a type now being developed for operation at temperatures up to 530 K in high-radiation environments. In the fabrication of some prior heat pipes, wicks have been made by extruding axial grooves into aluminum — unfortunately, titanium cannot be extruded. In the fabrication of some other prior heat pipes, wicks have been made by in-situ sintering of metal powders shaped by the use of forming mandrels that are subsequently removed, but in the specific application that gave rise to the present fabrication method, the required dimensions and shapes of the heat-pipe structures would make it very difficult if not impossible to remove the mandrels due to the length and the small diameter.

Posted in: Briefs, Manufacturing & Prototyping, Water, Fabrication, Heat resistant alloys, Titanium, Parts, Hoses
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