Materials

Detection of Carbon Monoxide Using Polymer-Composite Films With a Porphyrin-Functionalized Polypyrrole

This technique can be used in home safety applications, firstresponder safety, fire detection, and fire cleanup. Post-fire air constituents that are of interest to NASA include CO and some acid gases (HCl and HCN). CO is an important analyte to be able to sense in human habitats since it is a marker for both pre-fire detection and post-fire cleanup.

Posted in: Materials, Briefs

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Enhanced-Adhesion Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes on Titanium Substrates for Stray Light Control

Commercial applications include telescopes, binoculars, night vision goggles, and other optical devices that benefit from stray light suppression. Carbon nanotubes previously grown on silicon have extremely low reflectance, making them a good candidate for stray light suppression. Silicon, however, is not a good structural material for stray light components such as tubes, stops, and baffles. Titanium is a good structural material and can tolerate the 700 °C nanotube growth process.

Posted in: Materials, Briefs

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Three-Dimensional Porous Particles Composed of Curved, Two-Dimensional, Nano-Sized Layers for Li-Ion Batteries

A new method and materials were developed for preparing high-performance Si-based anodes for secondary Li-ion batteries. Building on previous knowledge acquired through research on thin-film batteries, three-dimensional (3D) porous macroscopic particles consisting of curved two-dimensional (2D) nano-structures of Si may bring unique advantages for Si anode technology. Prior work on thin Si films showed that during Li insertion, large-area Si films mostly accommodate the volume changes via variation in thickness. Therefore, the changes in the external surface area can fundamentally be minimized and thus, formation of a stable, solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) should be easier to achieve. In contrast, Si nanoparticles expand uniformly in all dimensions and thus, their outer surface area (where SEI forms) changes dramatically during insertion/extraction of Si. The low elasticity of the SEI makes it difficult to achieve the long-term stability under cycling load. Further, thin Si films have lower surface area (for the same mass), in comparison to Si nanoparticles, and better potential for achieving low irreversible capacity losses on the first and subsequent cycles.

Posted in: Materials, Briefs

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Bioabsorbable Material Textile for Improving In Vivo Device Design

Created by a carding and needle-punch process, this non-woven structure is designed to create three-dimensional environments for cell proliferation and function. A non-woven absorbable scaffold has been designed for implant devices in orthopedics, cardiology, and general surgery, as well as other in vivo applications. Where classic tissue engineering utilized non-woven textile structures as environments for cell growth, medical device developers are now going further to exploit the benefits of these bioabsorbable scaffolds for applications and surgical procedures right inside the body, as well as for cosmetic surgery, wound care, and more. BIOFELT combines the benefits of traditional 3D non-woven scaffold technology with advanced manufacturing techniques to deliver this transformative capability.

Posted in: Bio-Medical, Materials, Implants & Prosthetics, Medical, Orthopedics, Briefs, MDB

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New Materials May Cut Energy Costs for Carbon Capture

A study of over four million absorbent minerals has determined that industrial minerals called zeolites could help electricity producers slash as much as 30 percent of the parasitic energy costs associated with removing carbon dioxide from power plant emissions. The research was done by scientists at Rice University, UC Berkeley, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, and the Electric Power Research Institute.

Posted in: Remediation Technologies, Greenhouse Gases, Materials, Energy Efficiency, Energy, News

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Technology Awarded for Improving Submarine Air Quality

Creators of a nanotech-based system that captures carbon dioxide from the atmosphere within a submarine while providing a more environmentally friendly removal process have won the Federal Laboratory Consortium Interagency Partnership Award for 2012. The technology — Self Assembled Monolayers on Mesoporous Supports, or SAMMS — is destined for incorporation into future submarines.

Posted in: Remediation Technologies, Greenhouse Gases, Materials, Nanotechnology, News

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Copper-Gold Nanoparticles Efficiently Convert Carbon Dioxide

Copper is one of the few metals that can turn carbon dioxide into hydrocarbon fuels with relatively little energy, but it is temperamental and easily oxidized. MIT researchers have engineered nanoparticles of copper mixed with gold - which is resistant to corrosion and oxidation - making the copper much more stable. They coated electrodes with the hybrid nanoparticles and found that much less energy was needed for conversion.

Posted in: Remediation Technologies, Greenhouse Gases, Materials, Metals, Energy Efficiency, Nanotechnology, News

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