Materials

Hybrid Wound Filaments for Greater Resistance to Impacts

PBO fibers are used in addition to high-strength carbon fibers. The immediately preceding article includes an example in which a composite overwrap on a pressure vessel contains wound filaments made of a hybrid of high-strength carbon fibers and poly(phenylene benzobisoxazole) [PBO] fibers. This hybrid material is chosen in an effort to increase the ability of the pressure vessel to resist damage by lowspeed impacts (e.g., dropping of tools on the vessel or bumping of the vessel against hard objects during installation and use) without significantly increasing the weight of the vessel. Heretofore, enhancement of the impact resistances of filament-wound pressure vessels has entailed increases in vessel weight associated, variously, with increases in wall thickness or addition of protective materials.

Posted in: Materials, Briefs

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Lightweight Tanks for Storing Liquefied Natural Gas

These tanks are also relatively inexpensive. Single-walled, jacketed aluminum tanks have been conceived for storing liquefied natural gas (LNG) in LNG-fueled motor vehicles. Heretofore, double- wall steel tanks with vacuum between the inner and outer walls have been used for storing LNG. In comparison with the vacuum-insulated steel tanks, the jacketed aluminum tanks weigh less and can be manufactured at lower cost. Costs of using the jacketed aluminum tanks are further reduced in that there is no need for the vacuum pumps heretofore needed to maintain vacuum in the vacuum-insulated tanks.

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SiO2/TiO2 Composite for Removing Hg From Combustion Exhaust

This material could remove mercury from exhaust streams of coal-burning power plants. Pellets made of a high-surface-area composite of silica and titania have shown promise as means of removing elemental mercury from flue gases. With further technical development and commercialization, this material could become economically attractive as a more-effective, less-expensive alternative to activated carbons for removing mercury from exhaust streams of coal-burning power plants, which are the sources of more than 90 percent of all anthropogenic airborne mercury.

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Foam Core Shielding for Spacecraft

A foam core shield (FCS) system is now being developed to supplant multilayer insulation (MLI) systems heretofore installed on spacecraft for thermal management and protection against meteoroid impacts. A typical FCS system consists of a core sandwiched between a face sheet and a back sheet. The core can consist of any of a variety of low-to- medium-density polymeric or inorganic foams chosen to satisfy application-specific requirements regarding heat transfer and temperature.

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Sequestration of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes in a Polymer

The nanotubes would be solubilized for incorporation into lightweight composites. Sequestration of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNs) in a suitably chosen polymer is under investigation as a means of promoting the dissolution of the nanotubes into epoxies. The purpose of this investigation is to make it possible to utilize SWCNs as the reinforcing fibers in strong, lightweight epoxy-matrix/ carbon-fiber composite materials. SWCNs are especially attractive for use as reinforcing fibers because of their stiffness and strength-to-weight ratio: Their Young’s modulus has been calculated to be 1.2 TPa, their strength has been calculated to be as much as 100 times that of steel, and their mass density is only one-sixth that of steel.

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CHEM-Based Self-Deploying Planetary Storage Tanks

A document proposes self-deploying storage tanks, based on the cold elastic hibernated memory (CHEM) concept, to be used on remote planets. The CHEM concept, described in previous NASA Tech Briefs articles, involves the use of open-cell shape-memory-polymer (SMP) foam sandwich structures to make lightweight, space-deployable structures that can be compressed for storage and can later be expanded, then rigidified for use.

Posted in: Materials, Briefs, TSP

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Modeling Metamaterials Leads to Advance in Cloaking System Prototype

In efforts to use metamaterials to construct the world’s first working prototype of an invisibility cloak, researchers relied on multiphysics software. Modeling software is generally used to show the fields and flows that are impossible to see with the eye or instruments. A group of researchers has done just the opposite: They ran computer simulations that showed it should be possible to fabricate the metamaterials necessary to build an “invisibility cloak” that makes an object invisible to certain frequencies.

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