Materials & Coatings

A Simplified Diagnostic Method for Elastomer Bond Durability

Less time and equipment are needed. A simplified method has been developed for determining bond durability under exposure to water or high humidity conditions. It uses a small number of test specimens with relatively short times of water exposure at elevated temperature. The method is also gravimetric; the only equipment being required is an oven, specimen jars, and a conventional laboratory balance.

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Very High Output Thermoelectric Devices Based on ITO Nanocomposites

Thermocouples based on this material perform better than precious-metal thermocouples. A material having useful thermoelectric properties was synthesized by combining indium-tin-oxide (ITO) with a NiCoCrAlY alloy/alumina cermet. This material had a very large Seebeck coefficient with electromotive- force-versus- temperature behavior that is considered to be excellent with respect to utility in thermocouples and other thermoelectric devices. When deposited in thin-film form, ceramic thermocouples offer advantages over precious-metal (based, variously, on platinum or rhodium) thermocouples that are typically used in gas turbines. Ceramic thermocouples exhibit high melting temperatures, chemical stability at high temperatures, and little or no electromigration. Oxide ceramics also resist oxidation better than metal thermocouples, cost substantially less than precious-metal thermocouples, and, unlike precious-metal thermocouples, do not exert catalytic effects.

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Complex Multifunctional Polymer/Carbon-Nanotube Composites

CNTs are treated and incorporated into composites to obtain enhanced properties. A methodology for developing complex multifunctional materials that consist of or contain polymer/ carbon-nanotube composites has been conceived. As used here, “multifunctional” signifies having additional and/or enhanced physical properties that polymers or polymer- matrix composites would not ordinarily be expected to have. Such properties include useful amounts of electrical conductivity, increased thermal conductivity, and/or increased strength. In the present methodology, these properties are imparted to a given composite through the choice and processing of its polymeric and CNT constituents.

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Gadolinia-Doped Ceria Cathodes for Electrolysis of CO2

These electrodes have relatively low area-specific resistances. Gadolinia-doped ceria, or GDC, (Gd0.4Ce0.6O2–δ, where the value of δ in this material varies, depending on the temperature and oxygen concentration in the atmosphere in which it is being used) has shown promise as a cathode material for high- temperature electrolysis of carbon dioxide in solid oxide electrolysis cells. The polarization resistance of a GDC electrode is significantly less than that of an otherwise equivalent electrode made of any of several other materials that are now in use or under consideration for use as cathodes for reduction of carbon dioxide. In addition, GDC shows no sign of deterioration under typical temperature and gas-mixture operating conditions of a high-temperature electrolyzer.

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Oxide Fiber Cathode Materials for Rechargeable Lithium Cells

LiCoO2 and LiNiO2 fibers have been investigated as alternatives to LiCoO2 and LiNiO2 powders used as lithium-intercalation compounds in cathodes of rechargeable lithium-ion electrochemical cells. In making such a cathode, LiCoO2 or LiNiO2 powder is mixed with a binder [e.g., poly(vinylidene fluoride)] and an electrically conductive additive (usually carbon) and the mixture is pressed to form a disk. The binder and conductive additive contribute weight and volume, reducing the specific energy and energy density, respectively.

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Electrocatalytic Reduction of Carbon Dioxide to Methane

A room-temperature electrocatalytic process that effects the overall chemical reaction CO2 + 2H2O → CH4 + 2O2 has been investigated as a means of removing carbon dioxide from air and restoring oxygen to the air. The process was originally intended for use in a spacecraft life-support system, in which the methane would be vented to outer space. The process may also have potential utility in terrestrial applications in which either or both of the methane and oxygen produced might be utilized or vented to the atmosphere.

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Progress Toward Making Epoxy/Carbon-Nanotube Composites

A modicum of progress has been made in an effort to exploit single-walled carbon nanotubes as fibers in epoxy-matrix/fiber composite materials. Two main obstacles to such use of carbon nanotubes are the following: (1) bare nanotubes are not soluble in epoxy resins and so they tend to agglomerate instead of becoming dispersed as desired; and (2) because of lack of affinity between nanotubes and epoxy matrices, there is insufficient transfer of mechanical loads between the nanotubes and the matrices.

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