Materials & Coatings

Particle Distribution on Webs or Cloths

This technology provides the ability to uniformly distribute and attach particulate matter onto fibrous composite sheet or web materials.

This technology provides a methodology and products that are formed from fibrous substrates or film-like surfaces by uniform impregnation with a particulate that is subsequently firmly attached. The extremely uniform distribution of the particulate is accomplished by 1) electrically charging a fibrous matrix with individual exposed surfaces to create a uniform distribution of charged sites; 2) applying particulates to this matrix so that particulates adhere at the charged sites; and 3) the particulates are attached to the individual fibers within the substrate by firm non-transient bonding.

Posted in: Briefs, MDB, Briefs, Manufacturing & Prototyping, Coatings & Adhesives, Materials, Bio-Medical, Medical, Medical equipment and supplies, Fabrics, Fibers, Materials properties
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Hollow Radiopaque Bioactive Microspheres Carry Drugs in Embolization Procedures

Combining embolization therapy with localized drug delivery, application of biomaterials is more effective.

The number of applications of synthetic biomaterials continues to expand. However, the imaging of injected biomaterials is important to control the treatment procedure in real time, to avoid complications, and to assess therapeutic success. Embolization is the obstruction of the blood flow in a vessel that can be an effective treatment for tumors in hepatocellular carcinoma or for uterine fibroids. By combining this embolization therapy with a localized drug delivery, the treatment can even be more effective. The material that is currently used is not radiopaque and can therefore cause difficulties for the interventional radiologist during placement of the embolic. Therefore, hollow, drug-carrying microspheres were made radiopaque.

Posted in: Briefs, MDB, Briefs, Coatings & Adhesives, Materials, Bio-Medical, Drug Delivery, Medical, Diseases, Biomaterials, Pharmaceuticals, Polymers
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Liquid Cooling/Warming Garment

This lightweight garment can be used by firefighters, soldiers, and personnel working with hazardous materials.

The NASA liquid cooling/ventilating garment (LCVG) currently in use was developed over 40 years ago. With the commencement of a greater number of extra-vehicular activity (EVA) procedures with the construction of the International Space Station, problems of astronaut comfort, as well as the reduction of the consumption of energy, became more salient.

Posted in: Briefs, MDB, Briefs, Coatings & Adhesives, Materials, Bio-Medical, Medical, Patient Monitoring, Human factors, Spacesuits
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Tissuelike 3D Assemblies of Human Broncho-Epithelial Cells

Experimental conditions are more realistic than those of 2D monolayer cell cultures.

Three-dimensional (3D) tissuelike assemblies (TLAs) of human bronchoepithelial (HBE) cells have been developed for use in in vitro research on infection of humans by respiratory viruses. The 2D monolayer HBE cell cultures heretofore used in such research lack the complex cell structures and interactions characteristic of in vivo tissues and, consequently, do not adequately emulate the infection dynamics of in-vivo microbial adhesion and invasion. In contrast, the 3D HBE TLAs are characterized by more-realistic reproductions of the geometrical and functional complexity, differentiation of cells, cell-to-cell interactions, and cell-to-matrix interactions characteristic of human respiratory epithelia. Hence, the 3D HBE TLAs are expected to make it possible to perform at least some of the research in vitro under more-realistic conditions, without need to infect human subjects.

Posted in: Briefs, MDB, TSP, Briefs, TSP, Coatings & Adhesives, Materials, Bio-Medical, Medical, Scale models, Anatomy, Biological sciences, Diseases, Test equipment and instrumentation
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Magnetic Nanoparticles and Devices for Biomedical Uses

Potential applications include detecting selected biomolecules and treating some brain injuries.

A program comprising several collaborative research efforts has been dedicated to advancing the art of utilization of magnetic nanoparticles for biomedical purposes. The research has been performed by three teams, each focusing on different aspects of the art:

Posted in: Briefs, MDB, TSP, Briefs, TSP, Coatings & Adhesives, Materials, Bio-Medical, Medical, Sensors, Biological sciences, Medical equipment and supplies, Nervous system, Nanomaterials, Head injuries
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Database for Safety-Oriented Tracking of Chemicals

SafetyChem is a computer program that maintains a relational database for tracking chemicals and associated hazards at Johnson Space Center (JSC) by use of a Web-based graphical user interface. The SafetyChem database is accessible to authorized users via a JSC intranet. All new chemicals pass through a safety office, where information on hazards, required personal protective equipment (PPE), fire-protection warnings, and target organ effects (TOEs) is extracted from material safety data sheets (MSDSs) and recorded in the database.

Posted in: Briefs, Materials
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Optimized Li-Ion Electrolytes Containing Fluorinated Ester Co-Solvents

Resulting rechargeable batteries could be used in consumer electronics, electric cars, and scientific instrumentation in extreme environments.

A number of experimental lithium-ion cells, consisting of MCMB (meso-carbon microbeads) carbon anodes and LiNi0.8Co0.2O2 cathodes, have been fabricated with increased safety and expanded capability. These cells serve to verify and demonstrate the reversibility, low-temperature performance, and electrochemical aspects of each electrode as determined from a number of electrochemical characterization techniques. A number of Li-ion electrolytes possessing fluorinated ester co-solvents, namely trifluoroethyl butyrate (TFEB) and trifluoroethyl propionate (TFEP), were demonstrated to deliver good performance over a wide temperature range in experimental lithium-ion cells.

Posted in: Briefs, TSP, Materials, Battery cell chemistry, Lithium-ion batteries, Electrolytes, Materials properties
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Probabilistic Multi-Factor Interaction Model for Complex Material Behavior

Complex material behavior is represented by a single equation of product form.

Complex material behavior is represented by a single equation of product form to account for interaction among the various factors. The factors are selected by the physics of the problem and the environment that the model is to represent. For example, different factors will be required for each to represent temperature, moisture, erosion, corrosion, etc. It is important that the equation represent the physics of the behavior in its entirety accurately.

Posted in: Briefs, Materials, Mathematical models, Materials properties
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Electroceramic Actuators for Operation at Low Temperatures

Relatively large strokes are produced at temperatures between 30 and 60 K.

Electrostrictive ceramic actuators that can function at low temperatures have been developed for controlling the shapes of mirrors in the Next Generation Space Telescope (NGST). On Earth, electrostrictive ceramic actuators may be useful for fine control of the positions of objects in cryogenic laboratory apparatuses and in industrial cryogenic (including superconducting) systems.

Posted in: Briefs, TSP, Materials, Optics, Sensors and actuators, Ceramics
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Improved Low-Temperature Performance of Li-Ion Cells Using New Electrolytes

This technology has utility in high-power batteries for electric vehicles.

As part of the continuing efforts to develop advanced electrolytes to improve the performance of lithiumion cells, especially at low temperatures, a number of electrolyte formulations have been developed that result in improved low-temperature performance (down to –60 °C) of 26650 A123Systems commercial lithium- ion cells. The cell type/design, in which the new technology has been demonstrated, has found wide application in the commercial sector (i.e., these cells are currently being used in commercial portable power tools). In addition, the technology is actively being considered for hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) and electric vehicle (EV) applications.

Posted in: Briefs, TSP, Materials, Battery cell chemistry, Lithium-ion batteries, Electrolytes
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