Health, Medicine, & Biotechnology

Intranasal Scopolamine — INSCOP

This drug, in intranasal form, is an effective treatment for motion sickness. Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, Houston, Texas Space motion sickness (SMS) commonly experienced by astronauts during a space mission often requires treatment with medication. However, exposure to a microgravity environment results in a myriad of physiological changes that alter bioavailability. In particular, studies indicate that the bioavailability of oral scopolamine (SCOP) is decreased during spaceflight. Although altered gastrointestinal function, including delayed gastric emptying, appears to contribute to decreased bioavailability of oral medications, other factors typical of spaceflight may influence the pharmacokinetics of medications administered via a variety of other non-parenteral routes.

Posted in: Briefs

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Microbial Isolates from Research Activities as a Biological Resource

A collection of 1,530 individual isolates is used to evaluate the potential hazard of introducing sterilization-resistant microorganisms onto planetary spacecraft. NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California International treaty requires spacecraft landing on planetary surfaces that may have water present, or may have supported life in the past, to adhere to strict guidelines governing the microbial contaminants that are incidentally present in, and on, spacecraft hardware introduced to those environments. Precautions to prevent microbial contamination of flight hardware are taken throughout assembly, test, and launch operations to minimize transferring biological contamination to the planet. Effectiveness of these precautions is assessed by conducting bioassays of spacecraft surfaces and assembly areas to estimate the number of microorganisms present. Microorganisms discovered are preserved as a living document and compendium for the mission. The organisms that are of greatest concern are those that are highly resistant to desiccation and spacecraft sterilization by dry heat.

Posted in: Briefs

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Chromatid Painting for Chromosomal Inversion Detection

Applications include clinical cytogenetics, biomedical research, and biodosimetry. Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, Houston, Texas Chromosomal inversions, such as those occurring following exposure to ionizing radiation, are especially difficult to detect by current techniques. Therefore, their true frequency and importance have been underappreciated. Even the impressive technology of whole genome sequencing, which is becoming more readily and rapidly available, is useless for the detection of many chromosomal rearrangements within a chromosome. Likewise, stateof- the-art cytogenetic mBAND analysis of irradiated normal human tissue can only occasionally reveal radiationinduced inversions. A novel and innovative approach called differential Genomic Hybridization (dGH) or chromatid painting has been developed to further explore, expand, and capitalize on this new frontier of molecular cytogenetics.

Posted in: Briefs

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Guidelines for Meal Replacement Bars in a Space Food System

Emergency relief organizations, food banks, the military, and food service markets all have use for the bars due to their nutritional offering and long shelf life. Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, Houston, Texas To decrease the mass of the space food system and still maintain the nutritional intake of a mission crew, meal replacement bars and beverages are desired to supplement the menu and serve as meal alternatives. Nutritional requirements for such replacement products for breakfast and lunch have been established based on the current nutritional delivery of the International Space Station standard menu.

Posted in: Briefs

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Assisting An Aging Population: Designing Medical Devices With Force Sensing Technology

With the geriatric population on the rise, design engineers are challenged with designing responsive, noninvasive, user-friendly medical devices that cater to the needs of an older generation. Patients are looking for cost-effective, easy to use assistive tools that help them regain independence and confidence in their everyday life. Force feedback is a key feature for many of these devices that provide the user and doctor with great insight that ultimately results in better quality of life for the patient. Medical devices with force feedback allow design engineers to create innovative products that differentiate them from the competition. 

Posted in: White Papers, White Papers, Electronics

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Selecting Miniature Motors for your Medical Devices

The creation of small, portable infusion pumps opened a new chapter in medical care. A patient can receive carefully metered and timed doses of medicine, without requiring a visit to the medical practitioner, allowing life to be less restrictive. Ambulatory pumps have been developed to deliver insulin, nutritive supplements and anticancer drugs.

Posted in: White Papers, White Papers

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Avoiding Common Mistakes in Extractables/Leachables Program Design

Mistakes in program design for extractables/leachables testing can lead to significant delays, rounds of questions, and the need for additional testing. And, in some cases, all of the extractables/leachables testing may need to be repeated. To avoid these costly mistakes, it is important to understand the current standards as well as the current interpretations and opinions from regulators interpreting these standards. In this whitepaper the experts from WuXi AppTec discuss the current standards, interpretations and will provide you with tips to avoid common mistakes when designing your program.

Posted in: White Papers, White Papers

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