Medical

Micro-Endoscope as Thin as a Human Hair

Single fiber endoscope increases resolution fourfold over previous similar devices. Engineers at Stanford University have developed and demonstrated a prototype single-fiber endoscope that, they say, quadruples the resolution over existing designs, which might lead to the development of needle-thin, minimally invasive endoscopes able to view features out of reach of today’s instruments.

Posted in: Bio-Medical, Imaging & Diagnostics, Monitoring & Testing, Electronics, Optics/Photonics, Imaging, Photonics, Fiber Optics, Optics, Medical, Diagnostics, Briefs, MDB

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Hand-Based Biometric Analysis

Hand-based biometric analysis systems and techniques provide robust handbased identification and verification. An image of a hand is obtained, which is then segmented into a palm region and separate finger regions. Acquisition of the image is performed without requiring particular orientation or placement restrictions. Segmentation is performed without the use of reference points on the images. Each segment is analyzed by calculating a set of Zernike moment descriptors for the segment.

Posted in: Bio-Medical, Medical, Briefs, MDB

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Choosing Chiller Pumps to Cool Medical Lasers

Medical lasers must be cooled either by premounted or portable chiller systems. Laser systems continue to grow in application use throughout the medical industry. Applications for laser systems include diagnostic analysis systems, DNA sequencing systems, dental cleaning and surgery, skin care, eye surgery, tattoo removal, and much more. These systems commonly require cooling of the laser and other electronic components either by air flow on lower power laser systems, or by fluid circulation/chiller systems on higher power lasers. Higher power laser require an increased level of cooling capacity that results in systems that provide several gallons per minute of fluid circulation. This increased flow rate will maintain the laser and other electronics at the proper operating conditions.

Posted in: Bio-Medical, Manufacturing & Prototyping, Custom & Contract Manufacturing, Drug Delivery & Dispensing, Mechanical Components, Photonics, Lasers & Laser Systems, Medical, Drug Delivery & Fluid Handling, Briefs, MDB

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New Material Enables Improved Ultrasound

Ultrasound technology could soon be improved to produce high-quality, high-resolution images, thanks to the development of a new key material by a team of researchers in the Department of Biomedical Engineering at Texas A&M University, College Station.

Posted in: Bio-Medical, Imaging & Diagnostics, Optics/Photonics, Imaging, Optics, Materials, Metals, Medical, Patient Monitoring, Diagnostics, Nanotechnology, Briefs, MDB

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Functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy Signals Measure Neuronal Activity in the Cortex

This non-invasive monitoring method can be used to evaluate the mental state of people performing critical tasks. Functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) is an emerging optical neuroimaging technology that indirectly measures neuronal activity in the cortex via neurovascular coupling. It quantifies hemoglobin concentration ([Hb]) and thus measures the same hemodynamic response as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), but is portable, non-confining, relatively inexpensive, and is appropriate for long-duration monitoring and use at the bedside. Like fMRI, it is noninvasive and safe for repeated measurements. Patterns of [Hb] changes are used to classify cognitive state. Thus, fNIRS technology offers much potential for application in operational contexts. For instance, the use of fNIRS to detect the mental state of commercial aircraft operators in near real time could allow intelligent flight decks of the future to optimally support human performance in the interest of safety by responding to hazardous mental states of the operator. However, many opportunities remain for improving robustness and reliability. It is desirable to reduce the impact of motion and poor optical coupling of probes to the skin. Such artifacts degrade signal quality and thus cognitive state classification accuracy. Field application calls for further development of algorithms and filters for the automation of bad channel detection and dynamic artifact removal.

Posted in: Bio-Medical, Medical, Briefs

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Nanoscale Surface Plasmonics Sensor With Nanofluidic Control

This sensor has applications in health centers, clinical labs, pharmaceutical firms, drug research labs, and other facilities engaged in biomarker screening. Conventional quantitative protein assays of bodily fluids typically involve multiple steps to obtain desired measurements. Such methods are not well suited for fast and accurate assay measurements in austere environments such as spaceflight and in the aftermath of disasters. Consequently, there is a need for a protein assay technology capable of routinely monitoring proteins in austere environments. For example, there is an immediate need for a urine protein assay to assess astronaut renal health during spaceflight. The disclosed nanoscale surface plasmonics sensor provides a core detection method that can be integrated to a lab-on-chip device that satisfies the unmet need for such a protein assay technology.

Posted in: Bio-Medical, Medical, Briefs

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Bulk Moisture and Salinity Sensor

This sensor uses electrodes on the inside of the growth container to measure capacitance and conductance over the enclosed bulk volume. Measurement and feedback control of nutrient solutions in plant root zones is critical to the development of healthy plants in both terrestrial and reduced gravity environments. In addition to the water content, the amount of fertilizer in the nutrient solution is important to plant health. This typically requires a separate set of sensors to accomplish.

Posted in: Bio-Medical, Medical, Briefs

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