Health, Medicine, & Biotechnology

Printed Multi-Turn Loop Antennas for RF Biotelemetry

Compact antennas afford hemispherical coverage at any linear polarization.

Printed multi-turn loop antennas have been designed for contactless powering of, and reception of radio signals transmitted by, surgically implantable biotelemetric sensor units operating at frequencies in the vicinity of 300 MHz. In the original intended application of these antennas, the sensor units would be microelectromechanical systems (MEMS)-based devices now being developed for monitoring physiological parameters of humans during space flights. However, these antennas and the sensor units could just as well be used for physiological monitoring on Earth.

Posted in: Briefs, TSP, Bio-Medical, Medical, Antennas, Microelectromechanical devices, Telemetry, Human factors

Wearable Environmental and Physiological Sensing Unit

Safety of operations in hazardous environments could be enhanced.

The wearable environmental and physiological sensing unit (WEPS) is a prototype of systems to be worn by emergency workers (e.g., firefighters and members of hazardous-material response teams) to increase their level of safety. The WEPS includes sensors that measure a few key physiological and environmental parameters, a microcontroller unit that processes the digitized outputs of the sensors, and a radio transmitter that sends the processed sensor signals to a computer in a mobile command center for monitoring by a supervisor. The monitored parameters serve as real-time indications of the wearer’s physical condition and level of activity, and of the degree and type of danger posed by the wearer’s environment. The supervisor could use these indications to determine, for example, whether the wearer should withdraw in the face of an increasing hazard or whether the wearer should be rescued.

Posted in: Briefs, Bio-Medical, Medical, Sensors and actuators, Gases, Hazards and emergency management, Hazards and emergency operations, Protective equipment, Rescue and emergency vehicles and equipment

Antibodies Against Three Forms of Urokinase

These antibodies can be used to measure small quantities of three molecular forms of urokinase.

Antibodies that bind to preselected regions of the urokinase molecule have been developed. These antibodies can be used to measure small quantities of each of three molecular forms of urokinase that could be contained in microsamples or conditioned media harvested from cultures of mammalian cells. Previously available antibodies and assay techniques do not yield both clear distinctions among, and measurements of, all three forms.

Posted in: Briefs, Bio-Medical, Medical, Biological sciences, Diseases, Test procedures

Understanding and Counteracting Fatigue in Flight Crews

The materials included in the collection of documents describe the research of the NASA Ames Fatigue Countermeasures Group (FCG), which examines the extent to which fatigue, sleep loss, and circadian disruption affect flight-crew performance. The group was formed in 1980 — in response to a Congressional request to examine a possible safety problem of uncertain magnitude due to transmeridian flying and a potential problem due to fatigue in association with various factors found in air-transport operations — and was originally called the Fatigue/Jet Lag Program. The goals of the FCG are: (1) the development and evaluation of strategies for mitigating the effects of sleepiness and circadian disruption on pilot performance levels; (2) the identification and evaluation of objective approaches for the prediction of alertness changes in flight crews; and (3) the transfer and application of research results to the operational field via classes, workshops, and safety briefings.

Posted in: Briefs, Bio-Medical, Medical, Mental processes, Reaction and response times, Aircraft operations, Personnel

Mobile Collection and Automated Interpretation of EEG Data

Diagnoses could be performed while subjects engaged in ordinary activities.

A system that would comprise mobile and stationary electronic hardware and software subsystems has been proposed for collection and automated interpretation of electroencephalo- graphic (EEG) data from subjects in everyday activities in a variety of environments. By enabling collection of EEG data from mobile subjects engaged in ordinary activities (in contradistinction to collection from immobilized subjects in clinical settings), the system would expand the range of options and capabilities for performing diagnoses.

Posted in: Briefs, TSP, Bio-Medical, Medical, Computer software and hardware, Data acquisition and handling, Sensors and actuators, Diagnosis, Nervous system, Test equipment and instrumentation

Surface Bacterial-Spore Assay Using Tb3+/DPA Luminescence

A total spore count could be obtained in minutes.

Equipment and a method for rapidly assaying solid surfaces for contamination by bacterial spores are undergoing development. The method would yield a total (nonviable plus viable) spore count of a surface within minutes and a viable-spore count in about one hour. In this method, spores would be collected from a surface by use of a transparent polymeric tape coated on one side with a polymeric adhesive that would be permeated with one or more reagent(s) for detection of spores by use of visible luminescence. The sticky side of the tape would be pressed against a surface to be assayed, then the tape with captured spores would be placed in a reader that illuminates the sample with ultraviolet light and counts the green luminescence spots under a microscope to quantify the number of bacterial spores per unit area. The visible luminescence spots seen through the microscope would be counted to determine the concentration of spores on the surface.

Posted in: Briefs, TSP, Bio-Medical, Medical, Medical equipment and supplies, Test procedures

Simplified Microarray Technique for Identifying mRNA in Rare Samples

This method can be implemented by use of portable equipment.

Two simplified methods of identifying messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA), and compact, low-power apparatuses to implement the methods, are at the proof-of-concept stage of development. These methods are related to traditional methods based on hybridization of nucleic acid, but whereas the traditional methods must be practiced in laboratory settings, these methods could be practiced in field settings.

Posted in: Briefs, TSP, Bio-Medical, Medical, Biological sciences, Medical, health, and wellness

Thermal Spore Exposure Vessels

Thermal masses are minimized to enable rapid heating and cooling.

Thermal spore exposure vessels (TSEVs) are laboratory containers designed for use in measuring rates of death or survival of microbial spores at elevated temperatures. A major consideration in the design of a TSEV is minimizing thermal mass in order to minimize heating and cooling times. This is necessary in order to minimize the number of microbes killed before and after exposure at the test temperature, so that the results of the test accurately reflect the effect of the test temperature.

Posted in: Briefs, TSP, Bio-Medical, Medical, Bacteria, Containers, Test equipment and instrumentation, Thermal testing

Enumerating Spore-Forming Bacteria Airborne With Particles

Complementary data are obtained by use of two instruments and correlated.

A laboratory method has been conceived to enable the enumeration of:

Cultivable bacteria and bacterial spores that are, variously, airborne by themselves or carried by, parts of, or otherwise associated with, other airborne particles; and Spore-forming bacteria among all of the aforementioned cultivable microbes.
Posted in: Briefs, TSP, Bio-Medical, Medical, Measurements, Particulate matter (PM), Bacteria, Test procedures

Architecture Adaptive Computing Environment

Architecture Adaptive Computing Environment (aCe) is a software system that includes a language, compiler, and run-time library for parallel computing. aCe was developed to enable programmers to write programs, more easily than was previously possible, for a variety of parallel computing architectures. Heretofore, it has been perceived to be difficult to write parallel programs for parallel computers and more difficult to port the programs to different parallel computing architectures. In contrast, aCe is supportable on all high-performance computing architectures. Currently, it is supported on LINUX clusters. aCe uses parallel programming constructs that facilitate writing of parallel programs. Such constructs were used in single-instruction/multiple-data (SIMD) programming languages of the 1980s, including Parallel Pascal, Parallel Forth, C*, *LISP, and MasPar MPL. In aCe, these constructs are extended and implemented for both SIMD and multiple-instruction/multiple-data (MIMD) architectures. Two new constructs incorporated in aCe are those of (1) scalar and virtual variables and (2) pre-computed paths. The scalar-and-virtual-variables construct increases flexibility in optimizing memory utilization in various architectures. The pre-computed paths construct enables the compiler to pre-compute part of a communication operation once, rather than computing it every time the communication operation is performed.

Posted in: Briefs, Bio-Medical, Medical, Architecture, Computer software and hardware, Performance upgrades

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