Medical

NASA's Hot 100 Technologies: Health, Medicine & Biotechnology

Atomic Oxygen Texturing and Cleaning Atomic oxygen oxidizes and removes biologically active contaminants, and reduces the contaminant to an inactive ash. Thus, the contaminant is both sterile and biologically inactive. The resulting surface is entirely free of any bacteria, viruses, prions, cells, or any organic matter. Currently, 3/4 of orthopedic implants have measurable amounts of endotoxins. Atomic oxygen could totally eliminate these endotoxins, greatly reducing chances of post-operative inflammation.

Posted in: Medical, Techs for License, Articles

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Detecting High Stress in Oral Interviews and Text Documents

Content of an interview or text is subjected to various levels of statistical analysis to determine if the person knows the truth and is communicating it. Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, California When a person is interviewed, some of the answers may be inaccurate, or even deceptive, because the person may have either incomplete information, is telling only part of the truth, or is fabricating a false answer, or a combination of all three. When the person is habitually making statements that are known to be false, or only partly true, emotional and/or intellectual conflicts often arise within them, and these conflicts may become manifest by inconsistencies in use of different parts of speech or in logical relationships between statements. These inconsistencies are more subtle than inconsistencies in factual statements, and identification of these inconsistencies is more difficult and less straightforward than identification of factual inconsistencies.

Posted in: Information Sciences, Electronics & Computers, Medical, Data Acquisition, Briefs

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Predicting Heart Age Using Electrocardiography

Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, Houston, Texas Knowledge of a patient’s cardiac age, or “heart age,” could prove useful to both patients and physicians for encouraging lifestyle changes that are potentially beneficial for cardiovascular health. This may be particularly true for patients who exhibit symptoms, but who test negative for cardiac pathology.

Posted in: Information Sciences, Electronics & Computers, Medical, Data Acquisition, Briefs

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Prediction of Visual Acuity from Wavefront Aberrations

This automated vision test is accurate, simple, and fast. Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, California Visual acuity (clearness of vision) usually is measured by an eye doctor using an eye chart. It measures the smallest letters that can be reliably identified by the patient at a specified distance. The traditional test requires the patient to look and report which letters they see.

Posted in: Medical, Briefs

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Mobility Augmentation System Using Switchable Spring Mechanisms

This system could be used by disabled persons and individuals in rehabilitation who require prosthetics. NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California The disclosed device provides key elements to enabling compact exercise machines that overcome many of the disadvantages of the current spacesuit, as well as medical prosthetics and exoskeletons. The mechanism is based on switchable, curved, leaf, and torsion spring mechanisms that support the user joints and at the contact with the ground to enable high-speed, low-loss locomotion. The springs are primed with an actuator to counteract losses and recycle the user’s elastic energy in the locomotion. The mechanism is designed to be switchable and to allow for removing the springs from the structure for fine control. Adjustable hard-stops are embedded into each joint to prevent overextension and optimize the performance at each gait. The spring mechanisms are made from carbon fiber composites to reduce the weight of the system. The components of this mechanism can be structurally connected to each other via a mechanical clutch to form a symmetric lower-extremity system with a passive spring mechanism to reduce the requirement of the joints to dampen the impact forces and recycle some of the energy of walking and running.

Posted in: Medical, Briefs

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HeartBeatID – Heart Electrical Actions as Biometric Indicia

Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, California One or more biometric indicia, such as fingerprints, voice prints, retinal scans, and facial features, are often used to identify or authenticate the identity of a user seeking access to a given resource. Cardiac muscle is myogenic and is capable of generating an action potential and depolarizing and repolarizing signals from within the muscle. An intrinsic conduction system (ICS), a group of specialized cardiac cells, passes an electrical signal throughout the heart as a PQRST (Preview, Question, Read, Study, Test) signature.

Posted in: Medical, Briefs

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Cryogenic Grinding for Mechanical Abrasion for Hardy Endospores

The method is far superior to conventional mechanical abrasion strategies. NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California A comparative analysis was carried out between an emerging cryogenic grinding method and a conventional wet-chemistry/bead-beating endospore disruption approach. After extensive trial and error, it was determined that a regimen of three cryogenic grinding cycles of 2 minutes each was optimum for downstream DNA recovery. Spores embedded in ice exhibited a mere 1-log reduction in recovery following cryo-milling for up to 30 minutes. The observed total spore-borne DNA recovery was quite impressive, as well established, streamlined techniques for extracting DNA from endospores typically recover, at best, ≈10% of the molecules present. To facilitate the nucleic-acid-based testing required to detect and quantify DNA and endospores recovered, this innovation implements cryogenic grinding procedures followed by qPCR (quantitative polymerase chain reaction) methods to verify this novel capture technique.

Posted in: Medical, Briefs

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