Health, Medicine, & Biotechnology

Hollow Radiopaque Bioactive Microspheres Carry Drugs in Embolization Procedures

Combining embolization therapy with localized drug delivery, application of biomaterials is more effective.The number of applications of synthetic biomaterials continues to expand. However, the imaging of injected biomaterials is important to control the treatment procedure in real time, to avoid complications, and to assess therapeutic success. Embolization is the obstruction of the blood flow in a vessel that can be an effective treatment for tumors in hepatocellular carcinoma or for uterine fibroids. By combining this embolization therapy with a localized drug delivery, the treatment can even be more effective. The material that is currently used is not radiopaque and can therefore cause difficulties for the interventional radiologist during placement of the embolic. Therefore, hollow, drug-carrying microspheres were made radiopaque.

Posted in: Bio-Medical, Briefs, Briefs, Coatings & Adhesives, Drug Delivery & Fluid Handling

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Isolation of Resistance-Bearing Microorganisms

Strategies were explored for inactivating resistance-bearing microorganisms, focusing on a new species (Bacillus horneckii sp. nov.) discovered on the surfaces of the Kennedy Space Center cleanroom facility in which the Phoenix lander was assembled. Two strains that belong to this novel species were isolated and subjected to a comprehensive, polyphasic analysis to characterize their taxonomic position.

Posted in: Bio-Medical, Briefs, Briefs

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Growing B Lymphocytes in a Three-Dimensional Culture System

Cells grown in this system live long and closely resemble in vivo cells.A three-dimensional (3D) culture system for growing long-lived B lymphocytes has been invented. The capabilities afforded by the system can be expected to expand the range of options for immunological research and related activities, including testing of immunogenicity of vaccine candidates in vitro, generation of human monoclonal antibodies, and immunotherapy.

Posted in: Bio-Medical, Briefs, Briefs

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Liquid Cooling/Warming Garment

This lightweight garment can be used by firefighters, soldiers, and personnel working with hazardous materials.The NASA liquid cooling/ventilating garment (LCVG) currently in use was developed over 40 years ago. With the commencement of a greater number of extra-vehicular activity (EVA) procedures with the construction of the International Space Station, problems of astronaut comfort, as well as the reduction of the consumption of energy, became more salient.

Posted in: Bio-Medical, Briefs, Briefs, Coatings & Adhesives, Patient Monitoring

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Tissuelike 3D Assemblies of Human Broncho-Epithelial Cells

Experimental conditions are more realistic than those of 2D monolayer cell cultures.Three-dimensional (3D) tissuelike assemblies (TLAs) of human bronchoepithelial (HBE) cells have been developed for use in in vitro research on infection of humans by respiratory viruses. The 2D monolayer HBE cell cultures heretofore used in such research lack the complex cell structures and interactions characteristic of in vivo tissues and, consequently, do not adequately emulate the infection dynamics of in-vivo microbial adhesion and invasion. In contrast, the 3D HBE TLAs are characterized by more-realistic reproductions of the geometrical and functional complexity, differentiation of cells, cell-to-cell interactions, and cell-to-matrix interactions characteristic of human respiratory epithelia. Hence, the 3D HBE TLAs are expected to make it possible to perform at least some of the research in vitro under more-realistic conditions, without need to infect human subjects.

Posted in: Bio-Medical, Briefs, TSP, Briefs, TSP, Coatings & Adhesives

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Oscillating Cell Culture Bioreactor

This bioreactor is well suited to work with different biological specimens.To better exploit the principles of gas transport and mass transport during the processes of cell seeding of 3D scaffolds and in vitro culture of 3D tissue engineered constructs, the oscillatory cell culture bioreactor provides a flow of cell suspensions and culture media directly through a porous 3D scaffold (during cell seeding) and a 3D construct (during subsequent cultivation) within a highly gas-permeable closed-loop tube. This design is simple, modular, and flexible, and its component parts are easy to assemble and operate, and are inexpensive. Chamber volume can be very low, but can be easily scaled up. This innovation is well suited to work with different biological specimens, particularly with cells having high oxygen requirements and/or shear sensitivity, and different scaffold structures and dimensions.

Posted in: Bio-Medical, Briefs, Briefs

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Dual Optics/Ultrasound Imaging and Contrast Media for the Detection and Characterization of Prostate Cancer

Acousto-optic imaging could be used to detect prostate cancer in vivo.Detection of prostate cancer has frequently been plagued with inadequate sensitivity and specificity. Hypoxia is the hallmark of malignancy because aggressive cancers outgrow their blood supply. Optical imaging is emerging as a physiologic tool capable of quantifying hypoxia, but only at centimeter spatial resolution, which is unacceptable for prostate cancer imaging.

Posted in: Bio-Medical, Briefs, Briefs, Diagnostics

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