Health, Medicine, & Biotechnology

Enhancing Tumor Drug Delivery by Laser-Activated Vascular Barrier Disruption

Photodynamic therapy is used to eradicate tumor tissue and provide enhanced drug delivery.An obstacle to successful cancer drug therapy is the existence of drug delivery barriers, which result in insufficient and heterogeneous drug delivery to the tumor tissue. This drug delivery problem not only limits the clinical application of existing chemotherapeutics, but also decreases the effectiveness of many new drugs under development. Photodynamic therapy (PDT), a modality involving the combination of a photo-sensitizer and laser light, is an established cancer therapy. This work demonstrates the effectiveness of vascular-targeting PDT in eradicating tumor tissue, and modifying vascular barrier function for enhanced drug delivery.

Posted in: Briefs, MDB, TSP, Briefs, TSP, Drug Delivery & Fluid Handling, Medical, Patient Monitoring, Lasers & Laser Systems, Photonics

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Fast, Quantitative Diagnostic Reader for Multiple Medical Tests

Any test that attenuates light is a candidate for use with the device — potentially thousands of different tests.While most physicians have easy access to lab tests, those tests can be slow and expensive. Consumer versions of tests are inaccurate and have limited scope, and often involve sending a sample to a lab. Physicians, emergency rooms, EMTs, patients, visiting nurses, and caregivers may all need access to quick, accurate tests without waiting for results and making callbacks. Some chronic tests require the mixing of reagents, and so are difficult to perform at home.

Posted in: Briefs, MDB, Briefs, Diagnostics, Medical

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Miniature Bioreactor System for Long-Term Cell Culture

Cells can be cultured and sampled with minimal human intervention.A prototype miniature bioreactor system is designed to serve as a laboratory benchtop cell-culturing system that minimizes the need for relatively expensive equipment and reagents and can be operated under computer control, thereby reducing the time and effort required of human investigators and reducing uncertainty in results. The system includes a bioreactor, a fluid-handling subsystem, a chamber wherein the bioreactor is maintained in a controlled atmosphere at a controlled temperature, and associated control subsystems. The system can be used to culture both anchorage-dependent and suspension cells, which can be either prokaryotic or eukaryotic. Cells can be cultured for extended periods of time in this system, and samples of cells can be extracted and analyzed at specified intervals. By integrating this system with one or more microanalytical instrument(s), one can construct a complete automated analytical system that can be tailored to perform one or more of a large variety of assays.

Posted in: Briefs, MDB, Briefs, Diagnostics, Medical

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Fabrication and Modification of Nanoporous Silicon Particles

Biodegradable drug carriers allow sustained drug release for days or even weeks.Silicon-based nanoporous particles as biodegradable drug carriers are advantageous in permeation, controlled release, and targeting. The use of biodegradable nanoporous silicon and silicon dioxide, with proper surface treatments, allows sustained drug release within the target site over a period of days, or even weeks, due to selective surface coating. A variety of surface treatment protocols are available for silicon-based particles to be stabilized, functionalized, or modified as required. Coated polyethylene glycol (PEG) chains showed the effective depression of both plasma protein adsorption and cell attachment to the modified surfaces, as well as the advantage of long circulating.

Posted in: Briefs, MDB, Briefs, Drug Delivery & Fluid Handling, Medical

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Electrochemical Detection of Multiple Bioprocess Analytes

Key analytes can be detected using sample volumes of only 100 mL.An apparatus that includes highly miniaturized thin-film electrochemical sensor array has been demonstrated as a prototype of instruments for simultaneous detection of multiple substances of interest (analytes) and measurement of acidity or alkalinity in bioprocess streams. Measurements of pH and of concentrations of nutrients and wastes in cell-culture media, made by use of these instruments, are to be used as feedback for optimizing the growth of cells or the production of desired substances by the cultured cells. The apparatus is designed to utilize samples of minimal volume so as to minimize any perturbation of monitored processes.

Posted in: Briefs, MDB, TSP, Briefs, TSP, Medical, Patient Monitoring, Sensors

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Zinc-Doped Tricalcium Phosphate Ceramic for Surgical Implants

This material exhibits an osteogenesis-promoting effect without toxicity, making it suitable as a surgical implant.A ceramic body consisting of the phases of tricalcium phosphate and/or hydroxyapatite provides biocompatibility with hard tissues. When such a ceramic body is implanted in a bone, direct connection is formed between the bone and the ceramic body without intervention of any fibrous connective tissues. This zinc-containing or zinc-doped ceramic material mainly consists of tricalcium phosphate and is suitable as a ceramic material for biomedical use. In particular, the material provides surgical implant materials for hard tissue consisting of zinc-doped tricalcium phosphate to promote bone formation by releasing zinc in the body.

Posted in: Briefs, MDB, Briefs, Coatings & Adhesives, Materials, Implants & Prosthetics, Medical

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Micro-Electrode Visual Inspection System Utilizing Image Processing Tools

This system eliminates the need for manual inspections using microscopes.A system was devised to aid in the inspection of micro-electrode assemblies utilized in clinical lab instruments to conduct impedance measurements on living cells in a 384 bottomless well casing with the electrode layer bonded to the housing, creating the closed-cell, real-time data acquisition instrument for assay tests.

Posted in: Briefs, MDB, Briefs, Imaging, Medical

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