Health, Medicine, & Biotechnology

Tissuelike 3D Assemblies of Human Broncho-Epithelial Cells

Experimental conditions are more realistic than those of 2D monolayer cell cultures.Three-dimensional (3D) tissuelike assemblies (TLAs) of human bronchoepithelial (HBE) cells have been developed for use in in vitro research on infection of humans by respiratory viruses. The 2D monolayer HBE cell cultures heretofore used in such research lack the complex cell structures and interactions characteristic of in vivo tissues and, consequently, do not adequately emulate the infection dynamics of in-vivo microbial adhesion and invasion. In contrast, the 3D HBE TLAs are characterized by more-realistic reproductions of the geometrical and functional complexity, differentiation of cells, cell-to-cell interactions, and cell-to-matrix interactions characteristic of human respiratory epithelia. Hence, the 3D HBE TLAs are expected to make it possible to perform at least some of the research in vitro under more-realistic conditions, without need to infect human subjects.

Posted in: Bio-Medical, Briefs, TSP, Briefs, TSP, Coatings & Adhesives

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Oscillating Cell Culture Bioreactor

This bioreactor is well suited to work with different biological specimens.To better exploit the principles of gas transport and mass transport during the processes of cell seeding of 3D scaffolds and in vitro culture of 3D tissue engineered constructs, the oscillatory cell culture bioreactor provides a flow of cell suspensions and culture media directly through a porous 3D scaffold (during cell seeding) and a 3D construct (during subsequent cultivation) within a highly gas-permeable closed-loop tube. This design is simple, modular, and flexible, and its component parts are easy to assemble and operate, and are inexpensive. Chamber volume can be very low, but can be easily scaled up. This innovation is well suited to work with different biological specimens, particularly with cells having high oxygen requirements and/or shear sensitivity, and different scaffold structures and dimensions.

Posted in: Bio-Medical, Briefs, Briefs

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Dual Optics/Ultrasound Imaging and Contrast Media for the Detection and Characterization of Prostate Cancer

Acousto-optic imaging could be used to detect prostate cancer in vivo.Detection of prostate cancer has frequently been plagued with inadequate sensitivity and specificity. Hypoxia is the hallmark of malignancy because aggressive cancers outgrow their blood supply. Optical imaging is emerging as a physiologic tool capable of quantifying hypoxia, but only at centimeter spatial resolution, which is unacceptable for prostate cancer imaging.

Posted in: Bio-Medical, Briefs, Briefs, Diagnostics

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Photochemical Tissue Bonding for Military Medical Applications

A two-wavelength laser and albumen stent easily repair separated vessels.Joining severed vessels is a recurring problem in trauma and surgery. The basic technology of joining vessels using sutures has been available for centuries, but remains a slow and tedious process. A complete system for micro-anastomosis of vessels was developed that involves a laser in a clinically useful form factor, and a novel albumen stent to support the vessel during the surgery.

Posted in: Bio-Medical, Briefs, TSP, Briefs, TSP, Photonics

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Magnetic Nanoparticles and Devices for Biomedical Uses

Potential applications include detecting selected biomolecules and treating some brain injuries.A program comprising several collaborative research efforts has been dedicated to advancing the art of utilization of magnetic nanoparticles for biomedical purposes. The research has been performed by three teams, each focusing on different aspects of the art:

Posted in: Treatment Devices, Bio-Medical, Briefs, TSP, Briefs, TSP, Coatings & Adhesives, Sensors

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Endotracheal Intubation Device with Built-in Stylet and Colormetric Indicator

This device requires no assembly, saving time in life-threatening situations.An endotracheal intubation device is utilized by doctors and paramedics to mechanically create an airway and to ventilate an injured person. The most common ventilating practice in the paramedic industry today requires assembly of a three-piece system at the time when intubation is necessary, which is typically in an ambulance at the time of an emergency. This is a cumbersome and time-consuming process. An endotracheal (ET) intubation device was invented for paramedics to save time and lives by reducing the number of parts used during endotracheal intubation.

Posted in: Treatment Devices, Bio-Medical, Briefs, Briefs

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Edge Phantom Measures Sharpness of X-Ray Detectors

The corrected digital image can be used to enable computer-assisted diagnosis.Digital radiography makes use of Xray detectors that yield a radiographic image of the object or patient between the X-ray source and the detector. Tools have been developed to assess the image quality characteristics of radiation images. One tool is an edge phantom, placed between source and detector, to assess the sharpness of the radiation image obtained. The edge-like, spatial step-response of the system resulting from a sudden change in irradiation level, invoked by the phantom, can be used to calculate the modulation transfer function (MTF) in a particular direction. In this way, the sharpness of the detector can be assessed.

Posted in: Bio-Medical, Briefs, Briefs, Diagnostics

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