Photonics

Mapping Nearby Terrain in 3D by Use of a Grid of Laser Spots

A relatively simple system would utilize triangulation. NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California A proposed optoelectronic system, to be mounted aboard an exploratory robotic vehicle, would be used to generate a three-dimensional (3D) map of nearby terrain and obstacles for purposes of navigating the vehicle across the terrain and avoiding the obstacles. Like some other systems that have been, variously, developed and proposed to perform similar functions, this system would include (1) a light source that would project a known pattern of bright spots onto the terrain, (2) an electronic camera that would be laterally offset from the light source by a known baseline distance, (3) circuitry to digitize the output of the camera during imaging of the light spots, and (4) a computer that would calculate the 3D coordinates of the illuminated spots from their positions in the images by triangulation.

Posted in: Tech Briefs, ptb catchall, Photonics, Briefs

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Wide-Band, High-Quantum-Efficiency Photodetector

This device could detect single photons. NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California A design has been proposed for a photodetector that would exhibit a high quantum efficiency (as much as 90 percent) over a wide wavelength band, which would typically be centered at a wavelength of 1.55 μm. This and similar photodetectors would afford a capability for detecting single photons — a capability that is needed for research in quantum optics as well as for the practical development of secure optical communication systems for distribution of quantum cryptographic keys.

Posted in: Tech Briefs, ptb catchall, Photonics, Briefs

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Diffractive Combiner of Single-Mode Pump Laser-Diode Beams

Multiple beams can be combined without inducing multifrequency lasing. NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California An optical beam combiner now under development would make it possible to use the outputs of multiple single-mode laser diodes to pump a neodymium: yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG) non-planar ring oscillator (NPRO) laser while ensuring that the laser operates at only a single desired frequency. Heretofore, an Nd:YAG NPRO like the present one has been pumped by a single multimode laser-diode beam delivered via an optical fiber. It would be desirable to use multiple pump laser diodes to increase reliability beyond that obtainable from a single pump laser diode. However, as explained below, simplistically coupling multiple multimode laser-diode beams through a fiber-optic combiner would entail a significant reduction in coupling efficiency, and lasing would occur at one or more other frequencies in addition to the single desired frequency.

Posted in: Tech Briefs, ptb catchall, Photonics, Briefs

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Narrow-Band WGM Optical Filters With Tunable FSRs

Microwave signals generated by optoelectronic oscillators can be tuned. NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California Optical resonators of the whispering-gallery-mode (WGM) type featuring DC-tunable free spectral ranges (FSRs) have been demonstrated. Previously, the FSRs of WGM optical resonators were determined solely by the resonator geometries and materials: hence, the FSR of such a resonator could be tailored by design, but once the resonator was constructed, its FSR was fixed. By making the FSR tunable, one makes it possible to adjust, during operation, the frequency of a microwave signal generated by an optoelectronic oscillator in which an WGM optical resonator is utilized as a narrow-band filter.

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Digital Beam Deflectors Based Partly on Liquid Crystals

Laser beams are switched to different directions, without using solid moving parts. John H. Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, Ohio A digital beam deflector based partly on liquid crystals has been demonstrated as a prototype of a class of optical beam-steering devices that contain no mechanical actuators or solid moving parts. Such beam-steering devices could be useful in a variety of applications, including free-space optical communications, switching in fiber-optic communications, general optical switching, and optical scanning. Liquid crystals are of special interest as active materials in nonmechanical beam steerers and deflectors because of their structural flexibility, low operating voltages, and the relatively low costs of fabrication of devices that contain them. Recent advances in synthesis of liquid-crystal materials and design of the nematic-liquid-crystal cells have resulted in significant improvements in properties (e.g., short response times and birefringence) that are important for effective beam steering.

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Thermographic Improvements Benefit Automotive Industry

Like most mature industries, the automotive industry is highly competitive. Customers demand quality, security, and economy. Competition requires increasingly fast times to market for new designs. Combining customer and competitive demands creates a dilemma: How to design and build the best product as fast as possible.

Posted in: Features, ptb catchall, Photonics, Articles

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Shortwave Infrared (SWIR) Imaging Aids Laser Tracking, Detection

As warfare becomes more asymmetric, civilians and other non-combatants become a larger percentage of the casualties, along with unintended property damage. The military, of course, hopes to avoid these types of casualties and destruction. With advancing technologies that enable more precision from their weapons, they also need better pointing and targeting capabilities, while remaining covert. Improved targeting technologies that allow detection and identification at longer standoff distances from the designators also are needed. For instance, lasers are excellent at precision pointing, but it is important that others be able to covertly image the scene as well.

Posted in: ptb catchall, Applications, Photonics, Application Briefs

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