Photonics

Microwave Oscillators Based on Nonlinear WGM Resonators

Optical signals are phase-modulated with spectrally pure microwave signals. NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California Optical oscillators that exploit resonantly enhanced four-wave mixing in nonlinear whispering-gallery-mode (WGM) resonators are under investigation for potential utility as low-power, ultra-miniature sources of stable, spectrally pure microwave signals. There are numerous potential uses for such oscillators in radar systems, communication systems, and scientific instrumentation.

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Fiber-Optic Gratings for Lidar Measurements of Water Vapor

These are highly selective, lightweight, tunable optical filters. Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia Narrow-band filters in the form of phase-shifted Fabry-Perot Bragg gratings incorporated into optical fibers are being developed for differential-absorption lidar (DIAL) instruments used to measure concentrations of atmospheric water vapor. The basic idea is to measure the relative amounts of pulsed laser light scattered from the atmosphere at two nearly equal wavelengths, one of which coincides with an absorption spectral peak of water molecules and the other corresponding to no water vapor absorption. As part of the DIAL measurement process, the scattered light is made to pass through a filter on the way to a photodetector. Omitting other details of DIAL for the sake of brevity, what is required of the filter is to provide a stop band that:

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Simplifying Beam Measurements in Real Time

Beam collimation measurements can be made with a test lens and beam profiler. Photon, Inc., San Jose, California A common misconception is that beam collimation angle measurements must involve a least two or more beam size measurements along the beam path. For this reason, collimation measurements are often viewed as complicated and time-consuming. Real-time collimation angle measurements are considered out of the question.

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Pointing Reference Scheme for Free-Space Optical Communications Systems

A technique is proposed for referencing infrared transmit lasers with silicon detectors. NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California A scheme is proposed for referencing the propagation direction of the transmit laser signal in pointing a free-space optical communications terminal. This recently developed scheme enables the use of low-cost, commercial silicon-based sensors for tracking the direction of the transmit laser, regardless of the transmit wavelength. Compared with previous methods, the scheme offers some advantages of less mechanical and optical complexity and avoids expensive and exotic sensor technologies.

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Single-Phase Rare-Earth Oxide/Aluminum Oxide Glasses

These glasses are suitable for advanced optical applications. Marshall Space Flight Center, Alabama Glasses that comprise rare-earth oxides and aluminum oxide plus, optionally, lesser amounts of other oxides, have been invented. The other oxide(s) can include SiO2, B2O3, GeO2, and/or any of a variety of glass-forming oxides that have been used heretofore in making a variety of common and specialty glasses. The glasses of the invention can be manufactured in bulk single-phase forms to ensure near uniformity in optical and mechanical characteristics, as needed for such devices as optical amplifiers, lasers, and optical waveguides (including optical fibers). These glasses can also be formulated to have high indices of refraction, as needed in some of such devices.

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Distributed Intelligence Drives High-Energy Laser Manufacturing

Historically, high-energy (Joule-class) nanosecond YAG lasers have been confined primarily to laboratory research facilities and government labs. System designs were unique for each facility and the low number of systems worldwide made the learning curve for system improvement slow. It is only in recent years that the maturity of the technology has reached a state that makes it possible to consider these lasers for industrial applications.

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DFM Your Device? Simulation Is the Answer

Design for Manufacturing (DFM) has taken off like a rocket in the electronics industry in recent years. Performing process and device simulations on CMOS transistors in a DFM flow have proven to be important in shortening the design cycle and reducing the production cost by improving yield. These are the key elements to why DFM mans the gate to the success of semiconductor foundries and companies.

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