Photonics

Transmissive Diffractive Optical Element Solar Concentrators

These would weigh and cost less than do mirror-type solar concentrators. NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California Solar-thermal-radiation concentrators in the form of transmissive diffractive optical elements (DOEs) have been proposed as alternatives to mirror-type solar concentrators now in use. In comparison with functionally equivalent mirror-type solar concentrators, the transmissive, diffractive solar concentrators would weigh and cost less, and would be subject to relaxed mechanical tolerances.

Posted in: Tech Briefs, ptb catchall, Photonics, Briefs

Read More >>

Nematic Cells for Digital Light Deflection

Smectic A (SmA) prisms can be made in a variety of shapes and are useful for visible spectrum and infrared beam steerage. John H. Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, Ohio Smectic A (SmA) materials can be used in non-mechanical, digital beam deflectors (DBDs) as fillers for passive birefringent prisms based on decoupled pairs of electrically controlled, liquid crystalline polarization rotators, like twisted nematic (TN) cells and passive deflectors. DBDs are used in free-space laser communications, optical fiber communications, optical switches, scanners, and in-situ wavefront correction.

Posted in: Tech Briefs, ptb catchall, Photonics, Briefs

Read More >>

Improving the Optical Quality Factor of the WGM Resonator

New iterative annealing and polishing increases the resonator’s finesse over the fundamental limit. NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California Resonators usually are characterized with two partially dependent values: finesse (F) and quality factor (Q). The finesse of an empty Fabry-Perot (FP) resonator is defined solely by the quality of its mirrors and is calculated as F = πR1/2/(1 – R). The maximum up-to-date value of reflectivity R ≈ 1 – 1.6 × 10–6 is achieved with dielectric mirrors. An FP resonator made with the mirrors has finesse F = 1.9 × 106. Further practical increase of the finesse of FP resonators is problematic because of the absorption and the scattering of light in the mirror material through fundamental limit on the reflection losses given by the internal material losses and by thermodynamic density fluctuations on the order of parts in 109. The quality factor of a resonator depends on both its finesse and its geometrical size. A one-dimensional FP resonator has Q = 2 F L/λ, where L is the distance between the mirrors and λ is the wavelength. It is easy to see that the quality factor of the resonator is unlimited because L is unlimited. F and Q are equally important.

Posted in: Tech Briefs, ptb catchall, Photonics, Briefs

Read More >>

Ultra-Stable Beacon Source for Laboratory Testing of Optical Tracking

A prototype laser beacon assembly provides reference for testing tracking and pointing systems. NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California The ultra-stable beacon source (USBS) provides a laser-beam output with a very low angular jitter and can be used as an absolute angular reference to simulate a beacon in the laboratory. The laser is mounted on the top of a very short (≈1 m) inverted pendulum (IP) with its optical axis parallel to the carbon fiber pendulum leg. The 85-cm, carbon fiber rods making up the leg are very lightweight and rigid, and are supported by a flex-joint at the bottom (see figure). The gimbal-mounted laser is a weight-adjustable load of about 1.5 kg with its center of rotation co-located with the center of percussion of the inverted pendulum. This reduces the coupling of transverse motion at the base of the pendulum to angular motion of the laser at the top.

Posted in: Tech Briefs, ptb catchall, Photonics, Briefs

Read More >>

Delaying Trains of Short Light Pulses in WGM Resonators

Delays would not be limited by resonator ring-down times. NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California Suitably configured whispering-gallery-mode (WGM) optical resonators have been proposed as delay lines for trains of short light pulses. Until now, it has been common practice to implement an optical delay line as a coiled long optical fiber, which is bulky and tends to be noisy. An alternative has been to implement an optical delay line as a coupled-resonator optical wave-guide (a chain of coupled optical resonators), which is compact but limits the width of the pulse spectrum to the width of an optical resonance and thereby places a lower limit on the duration of a pulse. In contrast, a delay line according to the proposal could be implemented as a single WGM resonator, and the pulses delayed by the resonator could be so short that their spectral widths could greatly exceed the spectral width of any single resonance.

Posted in: Tech Briefs, ptb catchall, Photonics, Briefs

Read More >>

Creating Patterned Multispectral Filters

In recent years the explosion in demand for multispectral imaging has coupled with the industry’s insatiable need for weight reduction, there-by greatly increasing the demand for more sophisticated approaches to producing optical filters that are used in these systems. One method to meet the challenge of reducing the weight of a multispectral system is to eliminate beam-splitting optics and multiple detectors by patterning a filter array on a single substrate, or directly on the CCD itself.

Posted in: Features, ptb catchall, Photonics, Articles

Read More >>

Implementing Thermal Bumps in New Product Designs

Thermal issues are dominating today’s electronic product design landscape as never before. It is easy to see this in Intel’s move to a multi-core architecture as a methodology to manage their thermal problems. Of course, less than optimal solutions lead to less than optimal results. Thermoelectric devices (TECs) have been used in the optoelectronics industry for thermal management, but have not found wide-spread acceptance in electronic product design. Thermal management solutions implemented with these active devices, however, offer a broad potential for implementation including the following:

Posted in: ptb catchall, Applications, Photonics, Application Briefs

Read More >>