Physical Sciences

Conductive, Convective and Radiative Heat Transfer

Understanding heat transfer is central to verifying and optimizing products and system designs. Thermal characteristics and mechanical performance must be considered in the development of products such as reactors and electronic devices. Changes in a temperature field can occur due to conduction, convection, and radiation. But how important is each mode of heat transfer? What is needed for an accurate simulation? These are some of the questions we will address, in addition to showing a live demo of modeling heat transfer in COMSOL Multiphysics®. The webinar will conclude with a Q&A session.

Posted in: On-Demand Webinars, Physical Sciences

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Watching Alloys Change Could Lead to Better Metals

If you put a camera in the ice machine and watched water turn into ice, the process would look simple. But the mechanism behind liquids turning to solids is actually quite complex, and understanding it better could improve design and production of metals. A recent investigation aboard the International Space Station (ISS) involved experiments using transparent alloys to observe microstructures that form at the point the material solidifies.

Posted in: UpFront, Materials, Physical Sciences

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A Continuous-Flow, Microfluidic, Microwave-Assisted Chemical Reactor

The reactor uses a directed 60-GHz source, which may require far less power to observe the same reactivity profiles. NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California In industrial synthetic chemistry laboratories, reactions are generally carried out using batch-mode methodologies, stepwise reactions, and purifications to generate a final product. Each step has an associated yield of both the reaction itself and of the final purification that is largely dependent on the procedure being used, and the scientist carrying out the procedure. Continuous-flow reactors are one way of streamlining the process. Furthermore, microwave-enhanced, or microwave-assisted, chemistry has been demonstrated to aid in many of these areas; however, scaling has been a traditional problem with this technique.

Posted in: Articles, Briefs, TSP, Instrumentation, Physical Sciences, RF & Microwave Electronics, Test & Measurement

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Monolithic Dual Telescope for Compact Biaxial Lidar

Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland A document discusses the Ultra Compact Cloud Physics Lidar, a biaxial lidar with a narrow receiver field of view. It requires tight optical alignment between the transmitter and receiver paths while flying on various aircraft over various temperatures and in the presence of vibration. To achieve optical crossover as close to the lidar as possible, the transmit and receive telescopes must be built very closely to each other.

Posted in: Articles, Briefs, TSP, Tech Briefs, Photonics, Physical Sciences

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Thermal Materials Protect Priceless Personal Keepsakes

Thermal protection technology used on the shuttles keeps valuables safe from fire. Most of us cannot comprehend the task of building something to withstand temperatures over 4,000 °F, but NASA can. The space shuttles endured such temperatures when returning to Earth’s atmosphere because of aerodynamic heating, or heating due to the combination of compression and surface friction from Earth’s atmosphere. For the vehicle to survive these conditions, NASA constructed a complex thermal protection system (TPS) for the exterior of the shuttle.

Posted in: Articles, Spinoff, Materials, Physical Sciences

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Ultra-Low-Maintenance Portable Ocean Power Station

These fuel cell systems can be used for remote power generation, transportation applications, or in offshore wells. NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California The goals of this research are to develop a relatively inexpensive, compact, and modular power package for deep offshore oil drilling or other undersea applications that provides 2 to 5 MW electricity, minimal maintenance, and at least 30 years of life.

Posted in: Briefs, TSP, Physical Sciences

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Mars-Optimized Solar Cells

NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California Commercial triple junction solar cell designs were modified in their junction thicknesses, contact grid densities, and anti-reflective (AR) coating thicknesses to better match the Mars surface solar spectrum. Resulting cells show up to approximately 8% relative improvement in efficiency under the Mars solar spectrum, compared to non-optimized space solar cells, in testing performed at JPL.

Posted in: Briefs, Physical Sciences

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