Physical Sciences

Proton Collimators for Fusion Reactors

High-energy protons would be channeled into useful beams. Proton collimators have been proposed for incorporation into inertial- electrostatic- confinement (IEC) fusion reactors. Such reactors have been envisioned as thrusters and sources of electric power for spacecraft and as sources of energetic protons in commercial ion-beam applications. An artist's concept for an IEC powered spaceship designed for round trip missions to Mars and Jupiter is shown in the figure.

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Thermo-Electron Ballistic Coolers or Heaters

These devices may surpass currently available thermoelectric devices. Electronic heat-transfer devices of a proposed type would exploit some of the quantum-wire-like, pseudo-superconducting properties of single-wall carbon nanotubes or, optionally, room- temperature- superconducting polymers (RTSPs). The devices are denoted thermo-electron ballistic (TEB) coolers or heaters because one of the properties that they exploit is the totally or nearly ballistic (dissipation or scattering free) transport of electrons. This property is observed in RTSPs and carbon nanotubes that are free of material and geometric defects, except under conditions in which oscillatory electron motions become coupled with vibrations of the nanotubes. Another relevant property is the high number density of electrons passing through carbon nanotubes — sufficient to sustain electron current densities as large as 100 MA/cm2. The combination of ballistic motion and large current density should make it possible for TEB devices to operate at low applied potentials while pumping heat at rates several orders of magnitude greater than those of thermoelectric devices. It may also enable them to operate with efficiency close to the Carnot limit. In addition, the proposed TEB devices are expected to operate over a wider temperature range.

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Improved High-Voltage Gas Isolator for Ion Thruster

A report describes an improved highvoltage isolator for preventing electrical discharge along the flow path of a propellant gas being fed from a supply at a spacecraft chassis electrical potential to an ion thruster at a potential as high as multiple kilovolts. The isolator must survive launch vibration and must remain electrically nonconductive for thousands of hours under conditions that, in the absence of proper design, would cause formation of electrically conductive sputtered metal, carbon, and/or decomposed hydrocarbons on its surfaces.

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Antenna for Measuring Electric Fields Within the Inner Heliosphere

A document discusses concepts for the design of an antenna to be deployed from a spacecraft for measuring the ambient electric field associated with plasma waves at a location within 3 solar radii from the solar photosphere. The antenna must be long enough to extend beyond the photoelectron and plasma sheaths of the spacecraft (expected to be of the order of meters thick) and to enable measurements at frequencies from 20 Hz to 10 MHz without contamination by spacecraft electric-field noise. The antenna must, therefore, extend beyond the thermal protection system (TPS) of the main body of the spacecraft and must withstand solar heating to a temperature as high as 2,000 °C while not conducting excessive heat to the interior of the spacecraft.

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Theoretical Studies of Routes to Synthesis of Tetrahedral N4

A paper [Chem. Phys. Lett. 345, 295 (2001)] describes theoretical studies of excited electronic states of nitrogen molecules, with a view toward utilizing those states in synthesizing tetrahedral N4, or Td N4 — a metastable substance under consideration as a high-energy-density rocket fuel. Several ab initio theoretical approaches were followed in these studies, including complete active space selfconsistent field (CASSCF), state-averaged CASSCF (SA-CASSCF), singles configuration interaction (CIS), CIS with secondorder and third-order correlation corrections [CIS(D) and CIS(3)], and linear response singles and doubles coupledcluster (LRCCSD). Standard double zeta polarized and triple zeta double polarized one-particle basis sets were used.

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Fiber-Optic Ammonia Sensors

Reversible, colorimetric fiber-optic sensors are undergoing development for use in measuring concentrations of ammonia in air at levels relevant to human health [0 to 50 parts per million (ppm)]. A sensor of this type includes an optical fiber that has been modified by replacing a portion of its cladding with a polymer coat that contains a dye that reacts reversibly with ammonia and changes color when it does so. The change in color is measured as a change in the amount of light transmitted from one end of the fiber to the other. Responses are reversible and proportional to the concentration of ammonia over the range from 9 to 175 ppm and in some cases the range of reversibility extends up to 270 ppm. The characteristic time for the response of a sensor to rise from 10 to 90 percent of full scale is about 25 seconds. These sensors are fully operational in pure carbon dioxide and are not adversely affected by humidity.

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Silicon Membrane Mirrors With Electrostatic Shape Actuators

Precise shapes could be maintained over a wide temperature range. Efforts are under way to develop deformable mirrors equipped with microscopic electrostatic actuators that would be used to maintain their reflective surfaces in precise shapes required for their intended applications. Unlike actuators that depend on properties of materials (e.g., piezoelectric and electrostrictive actuators), electrostatic actuators are effective over a wide temperature range. A mirror of the present type would be denoted a MEMS-DM (for microelectromechanical system deformable mirror). The reflective surface of such a mirror would be formed on a single-crystal silicon membrane that would be attached by posts to a silicon actuator membrane that would, in turn, be attached by posts to a rigid silicon base (see figure).

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