Physical Sciences

Instrumentation for Sensitive Gas Measurements

Measurements are based on cavity-enhanced absorption.

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Apparatus for Testing Flat Specimens of Thermal Insulation

An improved design affords flexibility for testing under diverse conditions.

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Quadrupole Ion Mass Spectrometer for Masses of 2 to 50 Da

H2, He, O2, and Ar can be quantitated at low concentrations in N2.

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Miniature Laser Doppler Velocimeter for Measuring Wall Shear

Interference fringes are configured for sensitivity to a velocity gradient.

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Atom Skimmers and Atom Lasers Utilizing Them

Atom skimmers act as conduits and low-pass velocity filters.

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Gears Based on Carbon Nanotubes

Nanometer size gears could be used in molecular-scale machines.

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Multifunction Imaging and Spectroscopic Instrument

There would be no repositioning for different observations of the same specimen. A proposed optoelectronic instrument would perform several different spectroscopic and imaging functions that, heretofore, have been performed by separate instruments. The functions would be reflectance, fluorescence, and Raman spectroscopies; variable-color confocal imaging at two different resolutions; and wide-field color imaging.

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