Physical Sciences

Electrical Calibration Source for Next-Generation Oscilloscope

Simulation helps cool the calibration head for the world’s fastest real-time oscilloscope. Keysight Technologies, Santa Clara, California Keysight Technologies (formerly Agilent Technologies) develops world-leading equipment for solving tough measurement challenges. The company’s Infiniium 90000 Q-Series oscilloscope is the first to reach the 60 GHz barrier, enabling engineers to make measurements on a new generation of fiber optic transponders and systems that provide higher levels of data communication speeds than previously possible.

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Integrated Space Weather Analysis System (iSWA)

Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland The iSWA system is a Web-based dissemination framework for NASA-relevant space weather information that combines forecasts based on the most advanced space weather models with concurrent space environment information. A key design driver for the iSWA system is to generate and present vast amounts of space weather resources in an intuitive, user-configurable, and adaptable format, enabling users to respond to current and future space weather impacts, as well as enabling post-impact analysis.

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Automatic Localization of MSL Rover Mosaics in HiRISE Imagery

Applications include localization of autonomous vehicles in GPS-denied environments for military applications. NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) surface operations require precise and accurate knowledge of rover position. A key means of establishing/verifying position is to match ortho-rectified mosaics from the MSL onboard cameras to orbital data. Manual localization by matching mosaics to HiRISE imagery can be laborious and somewhat subjective. Ortho-rectified mosaics and orbital images differ dramatically in appearance, due to the extreme viewpoint change as well as occlusions (i.e. objects must be in line of sight) in the mosaics. A straightforward intensity-based matcher using correlation or local feature descriptors cannot cope with this difference. Instead, an information theoretic matcher was used that measures the mutual information between the mosaic and trial positions in the HiRISE imagery.

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SAM/MSL Terrestrial Background Spectral Library

Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland The SAM/MSL Terrestrial Background Spectral Library is one of the tools developed for identifying known terrestrial background for the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) mission. The SAM instrument suite can detect trace elements in the ppb range and therefore requires a robust library and informational structure to aid it in identification of source origin. It is unique in that it is the first spectral library developed containing spectra of more than 800 gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GCMS) files generated from analysis of actual rover materials. The terrestrial background library will help ensure that the spectral identifications remain accurate, and also determine whether the spectra arise from the Mars or Earth environment.

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Efficient Spectral Endmember Detection Onboard Spacecraft

Hyperspectral image analysis is useful for remote sensing or industrial applications, such as automated detection of manufacturing defects or food safety inspection. NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California Spaceflight and planetary exploration place severe constraints on the available bandwidth for downlinking large hyperspectral images. Communications with spacecraft often occur intermittently, so mission-relevant hyperspectral data must wait for analysis on the ground before it can inform spacecraft activity planning.

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Ray Tracing Model and Software for a Focused IR Lamp Heating System

This development assists in the design of an IR heat projection system consisting of halogen light bulbs and parabolic reflectors. John F. Kennedy Space Center, Florida When the space shuttle’s external tank (ET) was being filled with the cryogenic fuel components LOX and LH2, moisture from the surrounding atmosphere could condense onto the ET’s sprayed-on foam insulation (SOFI). This condensation could drip onto components, such as the LOX feed line bellows, where it would freeze, forming a potentially dangerous ice block.

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Using the Web Sockets Full-Duplex Communication Channel to Display Real-Time Sensor Data via Standard Web Browser

John F. Kennedy Space Center, Florida Web Sockets is a network full-duplex communication channel that allows Javascript programs embedded in Web pages to establish connections to applications running on the server that provided the Web pages. Two-way communication is possible between the Javascript program and the server-based application. This allows the Javascript program to display real-time data received from the server on the Web page without the need for refreshing the page. The Web Sockets communication channel has been utilized to display real-time measurements and health information from temperature and pressure smart sensors that were developed as part of the Advanced Ground Systems Maintenance (AGSM) project. The embedded processor in the smart sensors serves Javascript-based Web pages that establish Web Sockets connections back to the sensors. This connection allows real-time updates to be displayed on the workstation using a standard Web browser.

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