Software

Processing Raman Spectra of High-Pressure Hydrogen Flames

The Raman Code automates the analysis of laser-Raman- spectroscopy data for diagnosis of combustion at high pressure. On the basis of the theory of molecular spectroscopy, the software calculates the rovibrational and pure rotational Raman spectra of H2, O2, N2, and H2O in hydrogen/air flames at given temperatures and pressures. Given a set of Raman spectral data from measurements on a given flame and results from the aforementioned calculations, the software calculates the thermodynamic temperature and number densities of the aforementioned species. The software accounts for collisional spectral-linebroadening effects at pressures up to 60 bar (6 MPa). The line-broadening effects increase with pressure and thereby complicate the analysis. The software also corrects for spectral interference (“crosstalk”) among the various chemical species. In the absence of such correction, the cross-talk is a significant source of error in temperatures and number densities. This is the first known comprehensive computer code that, when used in conjunction with a spectral calibration database, can process Raman-scattering spectral data from high-pressure hydrogen/ air flames to obtain temperatures accurate to within ±10 K and chemicalspecies number densities accurate to within ±2 percent.

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Simulating Humans as Integral Parts of Spacecraft Missions

The Collaborative-Virtual Environment Simulation Tool (C-VEST) software was developed for use in a NASA project entitled “3-D Interactive Digital Virtual Human.” The project is oriented toward the use of a comprehensive suite of advanced software tools in computational simulations for the purposes of human-centered design of spacecraft missions and of the spacecraft, space suits, and other equipment to be used on the missions. The CVEST software affords an unprecedented suite of capabilities for three-dimensional virtual-environment simulations with plugin interfaces for physiological data, haptic interfaces, plug-and-play software, real-time control, and/or playback control. Mathematical models of the mechanics of the human body and of the aforementioned equipment are implemented in software and integrated to simulate forces exerted on and by astronauts as they work. The computational results can then support the iterative processes of design, building, and testing in applied systems engineering and integration. The results of the simulations provide guidance for devising measures to counteract effects of microgravity on the human body and for the rapid development of virtual (that is, simulated) prototypes of advanced space suits, cockpits, and robots to enhance the productivity, comfort, and safety of astronauts. The unique ability to implement human-inthe- loop immersion also makes the C-VEST software potentially valuable for use in commercial and academic settings beyond the original space-mission setting.

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X-Windows Socket Widget Class

The X-Windows Socket Widget Class (“Class” is used here in the object-oriented -programming sense of the word) was devised to simplify the task of implementing network connections for graphical-userinterface (GUI) computer programs. UNIX Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) socket programming libraries require many method calls to configure, operate, and destroy sockets. Most XWindows GUI programs use widget sets or toolkits to facilitate management of complex objects. The widget standards facilitate construction of toolkits and application programs. The X-Windows Socket Widget Class encapsulates UNIX TCP/IP socket-management tasks within the framework of an X Windows widget. Using the widget framework, X Windows GUI programs can treat one or more network socket instances in the same manner as that of other graphical widgets, making it easier to program sockets. Wrapping ISP socket programming libraries inside a widget framework enables a programmer to treat a network interface as though it were a GUI.

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X-Windows Information Sharing Protocol Widget Class

The X-Windows Information Sharing Protocol (ISP) Widget Class (“Class” is used here in the object-oriented -programming sense of the word) was devised to simplify the task of implementing ISP graphical-user-interface (GUI) computer programs. ISP programming tasks require many method calls to identify, query, and interpret the connections and messages exchanged between a client and an ISP server. Most X-Windows GUI programs use widget sets or toolkits to facilitate management of complex objects. The widget standards facilitate construction of toolkits and application programs. The X-Windows Information Sharing Protocol (ISP) Widget Class encapsulates the client side of the ISP programming libraries within the framework of an X-Windows widget. Using the widget framework, X-Windows GUI programs can interact with ISP services in an abstract way and in the same manner as that of other graphical widgets, making it easier to write ISP GUI client programs. Wrapping ISP client services inside a widget framework enables a programmer to treat an ISP server interface as though it were a GUI. Moreover, an alternate subclass could implement another communication protocol in the same sort of widget.

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Analyzing Power Supply and Demand on the ISS

Station Power and Energy Evaluation Determiner (SPEED) is a Java application program for analyzing the supply and demand aspects of the electrical power system of the International Space Station (ISS). SPEED can be executed on any computer that supports version 1.4 or a subsequent version of the Java Runtime Environment. SPEED includes an analysis module, denoted the Simplified Battery Solar Array Model, which is a simplified engineering model of the ISS primary power system. This simplified model makes it possible to perform analyses quickly. SPEED also includes a userfriendly graphical- interface module, an input file system, a parameter-configuration module, an analysis-configurationmanagement subsystem, and an output subsystem. SPEED responds to input information on trajectory, shadowing, attitude, and pointing in either a state-ofcharge mode or a power-availability mode. In the state-of-charge mode, SPEED calculates battery state-of-charge profiles, given a time-varying power-load profile. In the power-availability mode, SPEED determines the time-varying total available solar array and/or battery power output, given a minimum allowable battery state of charge.

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Automated Activation and Deactivation of a System Under Test

The MPLM Automated Activation/Deactivation application (MPLM means Multi-Purpose Logistic Module) was created with a three-fold purpose in mind: To reduce the possibility of human error in issuing commands to, or interpreting telemetry from, the MPLM power, computer, and environmental control systems; To reduce the amount of test time required for the repetitive activation/deactivation processes; and To reduce the number of on-console personnel required for activation/ deactivation.

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HFGMC Enhancement of MAC/GMC

Additional information about a mathematical model denoted the high-fidelity generalized method of cells (HFGMC) and implementation of the HFGMC within version 4.0 of the MAC/GMC software has become available. MAC/GMC (Micromechanics Analysis Code With Generalized Method of Cells) was a topic of several prior NASA Tech Briefs articles, version 4.0 having been described in “Comprehensive Micromechanics-Analysis Code — Version 4.0” (LEW-17495-1), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 29, No. 9 (September 2005), page 54. MAC/GMC predicts elastic and inelastic thermomechanical responses of composite materials. MAC/GMC utilizes the generalized method of cells (GMC) — a model of micromechanics that predicts macroscopic responses of a composite material as functions of the properties, sizes, shapes, and responses of its constituents (e.g., matrix and fibers). The accuracy of the GMC is limited by neglect of coupling between normal and shear stresses. The HFGMC was developed by combining elements of the GMC and a related model, denoted the higher-order theory for functionally graded materials (HOTFGM), that can account for this coupling. Hence, the HFGMC enables simulation of stress and strain with greater accuracy. Some alterations of the MAC/GMC data structure were necessitated by the greater computational complexity of the HFGMC.

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