Test & Measurement

Hydrometeor Size Distribution Measurements by Imaging the Attenuation of a Laser Spot

Measurement of the DSD’s second moment is made by way of the Beer-Lambert law. The optical extinction of a laser due to scattering of particles is a well-known phenomenon. In a laboratory environment, this physical principle is known as the Beer-Lambert law, and is often used to measure the concentration of scattering particles in a fluid or gas. This method has been experimentally shown to be a usable means to measure the dust density from a rocket plume interaction with the lunar surface. Using the same principles and experimental arrangement, this technique can be applied to hydrometeor size distributions, and for launch-pad operations, specifically as a passive hail detection and measurement system.

Posted in: Physical Sciences, Test & Measurement, Briefs, TSP

Read More >>

Victim Simulator for Victim Detection Radar

This simulator can be placed for long periods of time in environments that would be unsafe for a human subject. Testing of victim detection radars has traditionally used human subjects who volunteer to be buried in, or climb into a space within, a rubble pile. This is not only uncomfortable, but can be hazardous or impractical when typical disaster scenarios are considered, including fire, mud, or liquid waste. Human subjects are also inconsistent from day to day (i.e., they do not have the same radar properties), so quantitative performance testing is difficult. Finally, testing a multiple-victim scenario is difficult and expensive because of the need for multiple human subjects who must all be coordinated.

Posted in: Physical Sciences, Test & Measurement, Briefs, TSP

Read More >>

Using Acoustic Beamforming for Pass-By Noise Source Detection

This application note discusses a technique known as beamforming for determining noise location of passing vehicles. The technique has several challenges including simultaneous acquisition of a large sensor array, advanced signal processing and storage of extremely large data sets, and the environmental considerations required for operating outdoors on a test track. This application note recommends best practices for performing beamforming and walks through the complete system required from the test environment to the sensors to the math, analysis, and data storage with the goal of the reader being able to apply the technique.

Posted in: Test & Measurement, White Papers

Read More >>

Implementation of Real-time Spectrum Analysis

The keys to real-time spectrum analysis are to provide parallel sampling and FFT calculations so the data acquisition continues while the FFT’s are performed, and to provide fast enough DSP processing of FFT algorithms to keep up with the sample rate at the input. This white paper discusses the technical implementation of the real-time process in the Rohde & Schwarz real-time analyzers, and the applications for use of this analysis capability in the troubleshooting and test of modern designs.

Posted in: Test & Measurement, White Papers

Read More >>

Oscilloscope Fundamentals

The oscilloscope is arguably one of the most useful tools ever created for use by electronic engineers. In the more than five decades since the modern analog oscilloscope was created, hundreds of useful documents and thousands of articles have been written about what it is, how it works, how to use it, and application-specific examples of the “oscilloscope” in action. It is the purpose of this primer to instead describe digital oscilloscopes, which have for practical purposes replaced their analog predecessors in the vast majority of applications. Covered here is a short description of the oscilloscope’s origins, its transition from analog to digital, types of digital oscilloscopes and their major subsystems, key benchmark specifications, and measurements.

Posted in: Test & Measurement, White Papers

Read More >>

Troubleshooting EMI in Embedded Designs

Today, engineers need reliable data fast, and to ensure compliance with regulations for electromagnetic compatibility in the most economical way, appropriate measures must be taken early in the design phase. This paper provides a brief introduction to embedded EMI troubleshooting challenges and how to use a digital oscilloscope to debug the two key culprits of EMI – switching power supplies and power amplifiers. The Rohde & Schwarz R&S®RTO series oscilloscope provides time correlated multi-domain analysis often required to troubleshoot the complex time and frequency domain embedded design challenges.

Posted in: Test & Measurement, White Papers

Read More >>

Hybrid and Electric Vehicle Test System

SAKOR Technologies, Inc. (Okemos, MI) designed and installed a complete turnkey Hybrid and Electric Vehicle Test System for UQM Technologies, Inc. (Longmont, CO), a manufacturer of high-efficiency electric propulsion systems. UQM will use the system to test inverters and traction motors for use in hybrid and electric vehicles for the automotive, commercial truck, bus, and military markets.

Posted in: Batteries, Power Supplies, Electronics, Power Management, Energy Efficiency, Test & Measurement, Transportation, Products

Read More >>