NASA Spinoff

### Product Outcome

Capable of being applied to all types of carbon and alloy steel, stainless steel, cast iron, aluminum, titanium, and nickel-based super alloys, and many components with odd shapes or forms, LPB can be performed in a machine shop environment, in the field, and by using robotic tools. One important feature of the LPB application method is that it is highly controllable and can be validated to ensure that the process is applied to every part.

Over the last decade, LPB has been successful in completely eliminating fatigue failures in the first stage vanes on aircraft engines. Previously, these failures had resulted in the loss of several aircraft and crew. Lambda has processed over 45,500 of these vanes, and achieved process control exceeding Six Sigma. This processing is what led to FAA acceptance of LPB as a suitable process for both repair and alteration of commercial aircraft components. It is estimated that LPB will save the aircraft market over $10 million for the mitigation of stress corrosion cracking on just one landing gear application. In 2009, Lambda and Delta Airlines announced an exclusive partnering agreement to use LPB for maintaining commercial aircraft components such as landing gear, propeller hubs, and turbine engine blades. According to the companies, the team effort provides opportunities to extend the life of aging aircraft, overcoming damage from foreign objects, stress corrosion cracking, and corrosion pitting damage mechanisms that are common throughout the commercial aircraft fleet. In addition to having a significant impact on defense and aerospace components, LPB has also had a major impact on medical implant manufacturers. Lambda finds the savings for the medical and aircraft markets combined could reach numbers in excess of$100 billion.

A 2004 partnership between Lambda and Exactech, an orthopedic company that develops, manufactures, markets, distributes, and sells orthopedic implant devices and related surgical instrumentation, initiated the first commercial application of LPB to stop fretting in medical implants. Prior to working with Exactech, Lambda addressed a similar problem under SBIRs with NAVAIR, building on the work of NASA SBIRs, to apply LPB to stop fretting damage on the blade dovetail joint on jet engines.

In the case of the hip implant, fretting was occurring in a section of the hip stem due to severe cyclical stress, as every step taken by a patient represented a single loading and unloading cycle. Exactech explored a number of solutions to increase the performance of the implant, including laser peening and roller burnishing, but nothing compared to LPB, which improved the fatigue strength of the hip stem by more than 40 percent and increased the lifespan of the piece by more than 100 times. Data from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration confirmed that LPB completely eliminated the occurrence of fretting fatigue failures in modular hip implants. LPB has been integrated in the manufacturing process and applied to more than 3,400 hip implants.

Another application where LPB was chosen over laser peening was in eliminating residual tension in the final closure weld of the long-term nuclear waste storage containers for Yucca Mountain. The design review board for the containers unanimously selected LPB for the greater depth of compression, advantages in logistics, quality control, surface finish, and cost. The U.S. Department of Energy found LPB produced residual compression that exceeded the depth required for the surface to remain in compression for the 50,000-year design life of the containers.

LPB™ is a trademark of Lambda Technologies.

Six Sigma®/SM is a registered trademark and service mark of Motorola Inc.

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