NASA Spinoff

Tail Rotor Airfoils Stabilize Helicopters, Reduce Noise

VHA contacted Langley and discovered that the airfoils’ patent had expired, meaning the original NASA designs had entered the public domain.

“Langley encouraged us to take the designs, go forward, and be fruitful,” says Van Horn.

Product Outcome

A helicopter tail rotor serves two essential functions. It provides a counteracting force to the helicopter’s main rotor; without the sideways thrust produced by the tail rotor, the torque generated by the main rotor would spin the helicopter’s body in the opposite direction. The tail rotor also allows the pilot to steer the helicopter around its vertical axis by adjusting the pitch of the rotor blades. Using the design for the NASA RC(4)-10 airfoil, VHA crafted an updated aftermarket tail rotor for the popular Bell 206 series of helicopters.

“It’s an excellent airfoil, very stable, with very high stall margins,” says Van Horn. The company built upon the RC(4)-10 airfoil, employing corrosion-resistant composite material with a titanium root fitting, a swept tip, a nickel abrasion strip that reduces wear on the blades’ leading edges, and a new pitch bearing design. The result is a highly durable tail rotor blade—the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) granted the VHA 206 tail rotor a 5,000-hour lifetime, twice that of the original equipment manufacturer blade—with a number of enhanced features. The airfoil possesses zero pitching moment within typical operating speeds, Van Horn explains, and while the NASA airfoil’s design already limits the turbulence that causes noise and drag, the inclusion of the swept tip further reduces these undesirable qualities. FAA-mandated testing demonstrated a 40-percent reduction in the overall sound exposure level (the amount of noise produced) for helicopters employing the VHA 206 tail rotor—a welcome improvement for pilots, passengers, and people on the ground. In addition, the airfoil’s high stall margins enhance helicopter performance at high altitude; VHA flew helicopters with the new tail rotor at the Leadville Airport in Colorado, the highest elevation airport in North America, and determined the NASA-derived blade delivered superior high-altitude performance compared to the existing model. These improvements stand to benefit helicopter performance for a wide range of missions, including law enforcement and homeland security, military training, aerial patrol of wildfires and pipelines, mosquito control, and emergency medical services.

The tail rotor received FAA certification in 2009, and VHA delivered its first shipment of the NASA-derived blades to customers that same year. Now the company plans to use the NASA airfoils as its go-to design for all future projects aimed at advancing rotorcraft performance, Van Horn says. He adds that VHA has helped ensure a solid base for its future by taking advantage of NASA research.

“Given the market size and that we could capture a reasonable market share, this puts our company on very firm footing for the next 10 to 20 years and will provide a steady income to allow us to grow at a reasonable rate and develop new products,” he says.

“I’ve been on both sides of the government-research-to-commercial-product equation, and it’s a great system. It gives us an advantage that other companies don’t have, because we were able to avail ourselves of this NASA technology.”