Originating Technology/NASA Contribution
NASA intends to return people to the Moon, but this time to stay. Future plans include living quarters, scientific laboratories, a permanent lunar community, and a training ground for a future mission to Mars. Ahead of these first 21st century boots on the Moon, though, the Space Agency needs to make sure a couple of things are in place, including one thing that most of us here on Earth have begun to accept as a necessary part of any human existence: the Internet.
Originating Technology/NASA Contribution
The space shuttle is unique among spacecraft in that it glides back to Earth and lands like an airplane, usually touching ground near where it launched at Kennedy Space Center, but sometimes, in poor weather, gliding into the back-up landing site at Dryden Flight Research Center and then catching a ride back to the Cape on the back of a modified Boeing 747. Before NASA began flying the shuttle, though, astronauts had a longer, more involved trip back to base after a mission. Their capsule, called the command module, would plunge through the atmosphere before releasing a series of parachutes that would slow the craft enough for it to land on the water without too significant of an impact. Called a splashdown, this type of landing put the astronauts out in the ocean, where a specially designated U.S. Navy ship would then deploy a helicopter to retrieve the space travelers. Waiting for the rescue, the astronauts would release a highly visible marker dye into the water, then leave the command module and climb aboard a life raft.
Originating Technology/NASA Contribution
Since its founding in 1958, NASA has pioneered the use of different frequencies on the electromagnetic spectrum—including X-ray, microwave, and infrared wavelengths—to gather information about distant celestial bodies. During the 1962 Mariner 2 mission, NASA used microwave radiometers that operated in the range of 15–23 gigahertz (GHz) to assess the surface temperature of Venus and to determine the percentage of water vapor in its atmosphere.
Originating Technology/NASA Contribution
Special textiles have been mission-critical components for successful space missions since the early years of NASA’s first parachutes and space suits in the late 1950s. One of the Agency’s more recognizable uses for textiles, the Mars Pathfinder airbags, provided a cushioned, instrument-friendly landing in 1997. This same technology also successfully protected the Mars Exploration Rovers when they landed on the Red Planet in 2004.
Originating Technology/NASA Contribution
Successfully sustaining life in space requires closely monitoring the environment to ensure the health of the crew. Astronauts can be more sensitive to air pollutants because of the closed environment, and pollutants are magnified in space exploration because the astronauts’ exposure is continuous. Sources of physical, chemical, and microbiological contaminants include humans and other organisms, food, cabin surface materials, and experiment devices.
One hazard is the off-gassing of vapors from plastics and other inorganic materials aboard the vehicle, vividly illustrated by Skylab—in 1973, NASA scientists identified 107 volatile organic compounds in the air inside the Skylab space station. All synthetic materials exude low-level gasses, known as off-gassing; when these chemicals are trapped in a closed environment, as was the case with the Skylab, the inhabitants may become ill. To avoid this, air sampling systems on the International Space Station (ISS) periodically check the air for potential hazards. Advanced, high-efficiency particulate air filters and periodic filter cleanings have been successful in keeping harmful vapors out of the air. Other significant contaminants that pose hazards to the crew are microbial growth, both bacterial and fungal; air, water, and surface sampling by the crew in conjunction with periodic cleaning keep the microbial levels on the ISS in check.
To monitor microbial levels, crew members use devices called grab sample containers, dual absorbent tubes, and swabs to collect station air, water, and surface samples and send them to Earth for detailed analysis and identification every 6 months. This data provides controllers on Earth detailed information about the type of microbial contaminants on board the ISS. The controllers can then give additional direction to the crew on sanitation if increased microbial growth is identified.
Missions to the Moon and Mars will increase the length of time that astronauts live and work in closed environments. To complete future long-duration missions, the crews must remain healthy in these closed environments; hence, future spacecraft must provide even more advanced sensors to monitor environmental health and accurately determine and control the physical, chemical, and biological environment of the crew living areas and their environmental control systems.
Ames Research Center awarded inXitu Inc. (formerly Microwave Power Technology), of Mountain View, California, a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract to develop a new design of electron optics for forming and focusing electron beams that is applicable to a broad class of vacuum electron devices.
This project resulted in a compact and rugged X-ray tube with a carbon nanotube (CNT) cold cathode with a circular electron beam that is focused to a diameter of less than 80 microns. The performance, durability, and operating life of CNT cathodes was enhanced by inXitu working in cooperation with Ames; Oxford Instruments, of Scotts Valley, California; and Xintek Inc., of Research Triangle Park, North Carolina; among others. inXitu constructed an automated system for screening up to 10 CNT cathodes at once. Performance data from these tests helped CNT cathode researchers and developers improve tolerance to device processing, uniformity, and stability of performance within a given lot, enhancing performance of electron beam sources and ionizers in addition to other classes of X-ray tubes. This technology provides:
- Inherently rugged and more efficient X-ray sources for material analysis
- A miniature and rugged X-ray source for smaller rovers on future missions
- Compact electron beam sources to reduce undesirable emissions from small, widely distributed pollution sources and remediation of polluted sites
- Large area emitters for new X-ray sources in future baggage scanning systems
Researchers derived a mathematical distribution function for the beam with a purpose-built electron beam analyzer, which characterized the unique behavior of electron beams emitted from CNT cathodes. A boundary element computer incorporated the distribution function code to design the electron optics, with an electrostatically focused electron gun and magnetic lens to focus the electron. The final X-ray tube consists of rugged metal ceramic construction welded into a 2-inch-diameter package along with a 40 kV power supply. This design forms a hermetic package that can withstand severe environmental stresses encountered during launch, landing, and operation in space.
NASA will apply this technology in versatile X-ray instruments capable of operating in both a fluorescence or diffraction mode for in situ analysis of rocks and soils of the solid bodies in the solar system to determine their atomic constituents and mineralogy. Other applications of this technology include purifying air in space and Moon base stations, eliminating toxic products and biological toxins in aircraft, enhancing chemical reactions in space-based manufacturing, and sterilization of material to be returned to Earth or taken to space from Earth. inXitu was awarded a Phase III SBIR contract in 2006 to continue this work.
Oxford’s X-ray Technology Group provides laboratory space and production support for continuing development and commercialization of advanced CNT-based vacuum sources. The company produced Eclipse 1 and Eclipse 2 X-ray sources from inXitu’s prototype that was used in hand-held and portable fluorescence spectrometers for in situ analysis of materials and surfaces. The Eclipse 2 X-ray tube was applied in equipment for monitoring paper coating and other high-speed processes.
Next-generation baggage and cargo screening systems employ CNT cold cathode X-ray sources, promising increased throughput, reduced false alarm rates, reduced power consumption, reduced heat load, reduced size and weight, and improved ruggedness and responsiveness over existing thermionic X-ray sources. Additional commercial applications include air purification; odor elimination; non-burning destruction of evaporated hydrocarbons from fuel tanks and painting operations; soil and groundwater remediation; flue gas cleaning; and chemical reaction enhancements, such as increasing fuel efficiency and reducing ink drying speed, as well as surface sterilization.
Originating Technology/NASA Contribution
Insulating and protecting astronauts from temperature extremes, from the 3 K (-455 °F) of deep space to the 1,533 K (2,300 °F) of atmospheric reentry, is central to NASA’s human space flight program. While the space shuttle and capsule vehicles necessarily receive a great deal of thermal barrier and insulation protection, at least as much attention is also paid to astronaut clothing and personal gear. NASA has spent a great deal of effort developing and refining fire-resistant materials for use in vehicles, flight suits, and other applications demanding extreme thermal tolerances, and kept a close eye on the cutting edge of high-temperature stable polymers for its entire 50-year history.
In the late 1950s, Dr. Carl Marvel first synthesized Polybenzimidazole (PBI) while studying the creation of high-temperature stable polymers for the U.S. Air Force. In 1961, PBI was further developed by Marvel and Dr. Herward Vogel, correctly anticipating that the polymers would have exceptional thermal and oxidative stability. In 1963, NASA and the Air Force Materials Laboratory sponsored considerable work with PBI for aerospace and defense applications as a non-flammable and thermally stable textile fiber.
On January 27, 1967, the severity and immediacy of the danger of fire faced by astronauts was made terribly clear when a flash fire occurred in command module 012 during a launch pad test of the Apollo/Saturn space vehicle being prepared for the first piloted flight, the AS-204 mission (also known as Apollo 1). Three astronauts, Lieutenant Colonel Virgil I. Grissom, a veteran of Mercury and Gemini missions; Lieutenant Colonel Edward H. White II, the astronaut who had performed the first U.S. extravehicular activity during the Gemini program; and Lieutenant Commander Roger B. Chaffee, an astronaut preparing for his first space flight, died in this tragic accident.
A final report on the tragedy, completed in April 1967, made specific recommendations for major design and engineering modifications, including severely restricting and controlling the amount and location of combustible materials in the command module and the astronaut flight suits. NASA intensified its focus on advanced fire-resistant materials, and given the Agency’s existing familiarity with the fabric and its inventor, one of the first alternatives considered was PBI.
NASA contracted with Celanese Corporation, of New York, to develop a line of PBI textiles for use in space suits and vehicles. Celanese engineers developed heat- and flame-resistant PBI fabric based on the fiber for high-temperature applications. The fibers formed from the PBI polymer exhibited a number of highly desirable characteristics, such as inflammability, no melting point, and retention of both strength and flexibility after exposure to flame. The stiff fibers also maintained their integrity when exposed to high heat and were mildew, abrasion, and chemical resistant.
Throughout the 1970s and into the 1980s, PBI was instrumental to space flight, seeing application on Apollo, Skylab, and numerous space shuttle missions. Applications ran the gamut from the intended applications in astronaut flight suits and clothing, to webbing, tethers, and other gear that demanded durability and extreme thermal tolerance.
In 1978, PBI was introduced to fire service in the United States, and Project FIRES (Firefighters Integrated Response Equipment System) lauded a recently developed outer shell material for turnout gear, PBI Gold. In 1983, PBI fibers were made commercially available and a dedicated production plant opened in Rock Hill, South Carolina, to meet demand. In 1986, NASA Spinoff chronicled this first phase of PBI’s history, and Marvel was awarded the “National Medal of Science” by President Ronald Reagan.
Since 1986, PBI has undergone a steady evolution into countless military and civilian applications and established a distinct profile and reputation in the fire retardant materials industry. In 2005, Celanese Corporation sold the PBI fiber and polymer business to PBI Performance Products Inc., of Charlotte, North Carolina, which is under the ownership of the InterTech Group, of North Charleston, South Carolina.
Produced by a dedicated manufacturer that takes great pride in the history and future of the product, the fabrics incorporating PBI have become prominent players in such diverse applications as firefighting and emergency response, motor sports, military, industry, and (still) aerospace. PBI Performance Products now offers two distinct lines: PBI, the original heat and flame resistant fiber; and Celazole, a family of high-temperature PBI polymers available in true polymer form.
- PBI fabric withstands the dangers associated with firefighting, arc flash, and flash fire. In 1992, lightweight PBI fabrics were adapted for flame-resistant work wear for electric utility and petrochemical applications, and are now providing flame protection for U.S. Army troops in Afghanistan and Iraq. Short-cut PBI fibers were introduced for use in automotive braking systems and PBI staple fibers are employed as fire blocking layers in aircraft seats.
- PBI Gold blends 40 percent thermal-resistant PBI fibers with 60 percent high-strength aramid, resulting in a fabric which does not shrink, become brittle, or break open under extreme heat and flame exposure. PBI Gold provides firefighters and industrial workers with superior protection and meets or exceeds every National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) and EN 469 (rating standard for protective clothing for firefighters) requirement. In 1994, the New York City Fire Department specified the use of PBI Gold fabric engineered in black for their turnout gear. Over the last 10 years, PBI Gold has grown internationally, with major industrial, military, and municipal fire brigades specifying the product across Europe, the Middle East, Asia, Australia, and the South Pacific.
- PBI Matrix employs a “power grid,” a durable matrix of high-strength aramid filaments woven into the PBI Gold fabric to enhance and reinforce its resistance to wear and tear while retaining its superior flame and heat protection. In 2003, PBI Matrix was commercialized and introduced in the United States as the next-generation PBI for firefighter turnout gear. In 2008, Matrix will be introduced in Europe.
- PBI TriGuard fabric is a three-fiber blend of PBI, Lenzing FR, and MicroTwaron designed for flame protection, comfort, and durability. This advanced fabric meets or exceeds all U.S. Department of Labor Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) and NFPA standards and is certified for wildlands, special operations, and motorsports applications, as well as the petrochemical, gas utility, and electric utility industries. PBI TriGuard and PBI Gold knits are now in use at several major motorsport racetracks around the country.
- Celazole T-Series is a form-, shape-, and an injection-moldable blend of PBI and PEEK (polyetheretherketone) polymers.
- Celazole U-Series utilizes PBI’s high-heat dimensional stability, strength, and chemical resistance to allow it to be formed into parts and used in the tools that produce flat panel displays and in the plasma etch chambers used to make semiconductor wafers.
New applications for PBI are continuing to come to light in new fields that demand material stability at high temperatures. PBI is now being developed into high-
temperature separation membranes that increase efficiency in ethanol production and separate carbon dioxide from natural gas for carbon dioxide sequestration, and will see application in hydrogen fuel cells. PBI in short-cut form has also been used as a safe and effective replacement for asbestos. Fittingly, PBI may also return to space as part of NASA’s Constellation Program, as the polymer once applied for space suits in the Apollo and Skylab missions is under consideration for use as insulation material in the rocket motors for NASA’s next generation of spacecraft, the Ares I and Ares V rockets.
PBI TriGuard™ is a trademark, and PBI Gold®, PBI Matrix®, and Celazole® are registered trademarks of PBI Performance Products Inc.
Lenzing FR® is a registered trademark of Lenzing Fibers GmbH.
MicroTwaron™ is a trademark of Akzo N.V.
Originating Technology/NASA Contribution
In applications where stress on a structure may vary widely and have an unknown impact on integrity, a common engineering strategy has been overbuilding to ensure a sufficiently robust design. While this may be appropriate in applications where weight concerns are not paramount, space applications demand a bare minimum of mass, given astronomical per-pound launch costs. For decades, the preferred solution was the tactic of disassembly and investigation between flights. Knowing there must be a better way, Dr. Mark Froggatt, of Langley Research Center, explored alternate means of monitoring stresses and damage to the space shuttle.
While a tear-it-apart-and-have-a-look strategy was effective, it was also a costly and time consuming process that risked further stresses through the very act of disassembly and reassembly. An alternate way of monitoring the condition of parts under the enormous stresses of space flight was needed. Froggatt and his colleagues at Langley built an early-warning device to provide detailed information about even minuscule cracks and deformations by etching a group of tiny lines, or grating, on a fiber optic cable five-thousandths of an inch thick with ultraviolet light. By then gluing the fiber to the side of a part, such as a fuel tank, and shining a laser beam down its length, reflected light indicated which gratings were under stress. Inferring this data from measurements in light rather than in bonded gauges saved additional weight. Various shuttle components now employ the ultrasonic dynamic vector stress sensor (UDVSS), allowing stress detection by measuring light beamed from a built-in mini-laser.
By measuring changes in dynamic directional stress occurring in a material or structure, and including phase-locked loop, synchronous amplifier, and contact probe, the UDVSS proved especially useful among manufacturers of aerospace and automotive structures for stress testing and design evaluation. Engineers could ensure safety in airplanes and spaceships with a narrower, not overbuilt, margin of safety. For this development, in 1997, Discover Magazine named Froggatt a winner in the “Eighth Annual Awards for Technological Innovation” from more than 4,000 entries.
Froggatt continued his work in monitoring stresses of fiber optic components, accessories, and networks through optical monitoring at Luna Technologies, a division of Luna Innovations Incorporated, based in Blacksburg, Virginia. At Luna, he headed a team that developed the Optical Backscatter Reflectometer (OBR) with distributed sensing. The OBR is a fiber optic diagnostic tool that locates and troubleshoots splices, breaks, and connectors in fiber assemblies. In addition, it transforms standard telecom-grade fiber into a distributed strain and temperature sensor.
In 2002, Luna Innovations Incorporated entered into a licensing agreement with NASA for patent rights to products developed from Froggatt’s earlier work on the UDVSS. Since that initial licensing, Luna has released the Optical Vector Analyzer (OVA), Distributed Sensing System (DSS), and the OBR platforms.
Luna now has several lines of sensing and instrumentation products that are sold under the branded name of Luna Technologies. The Luna Technologies brand offers advances in optical test products helping the communications industry to increase productivity and improve component characterization while dramatically reducing the development process and production costs. Fiber optic sensing instruments includes the OVA group, a set of instruments for linear characterization of single-mode optical components, and two different techniques for distributed sensing: the DSS, which uses Fiber Bragg Gratings (FBG), and the OBR, which uses standard telecom-grade optical fiber.
First profiled in Spinoff 2002, the OVA is the first instrument on the market that is capable of full and complete all-parameter linear characterization of single-mode optical components. The OVA further evolved into a fast, accurate, and economical suite of tools for loss, dispersion, and polarization measurement of modern optical networking equipment, including FBG, arrayed waveguide gratings, free-space filters, tunable devices, amplifiers, couplers, and specialty fiber.
The DSS is a fiber optic sensing tool for taking distributed measurements of temperature and strain. The DSS uses swept-wavelength interferometry to simultaneously interrogate thousands of sensors integrated in a single fiber. These sensors consist of discrete FBG point sensors which can each reflect the same nominal wavelength. As such, the sensors can be fabricated on the draw tower, eliminating the need for individual grating fabrication. DSS applications include structural monitoring for naval, aerospace, and civil structures; temperature profile monitoring in extreme environments; pipeline shift and leak detection; and electrical power line sag and temperature monitoring.
The OBR offers unprecedented diagnostic capabilities and is a true high-resolution optical time domain reflectometer designed specifically for qualifying fiber components, modules, and cable assemblies for telecommunications, avionics/military-aerospace, and fiber-sensing applications. Through distributed sensing, the OBR can transform standard telecom-grade fiber into a high-spatial-resolution strain and temperature sensor. Using swept wavelength interferometry (SWI) to measure the Rayleigh backscatter as a function of length in optical fiber with high-spatial resolution, the OBR measures shifts and scales them to give a distributed temperature or strain measurement. The SWI approach enables robust and practical distributed temperature and strain measurements in standard fiber with millimeter-scale spatial resolution over hundreds of meters of fiber with strain and temperature resolution as fine as 1 μstrain and 0.1 °C.
As with the other fiber optic monitoring tools, OBR provides isolation of faults and problems well before final testing, saving hours in rework and expenses in yield loss.
These abilities netted the OBR some prestigious awards:
- 2005 Lightwave “Attendees’ Choice Award” in the Test Equipment category for the second consecutive year.
- 2005 Frost & Sullivan “Optical Product of the Year Award,” as the industry’s most sensitive frequency domain reflectometer.
- 2007 “R&D 100” award from the editors of R&D Magazine as one of the 100 most technologically significant new products introduced into the marketplace in the last year. Past “R&D 100” awards acknowledgements have included the automated teller machine (ATM), the fax machine, the NicoDerm antismoking patch, and high-definition television (HDTV).
“The ‘R&D 100’ award provides a mark of excellence known to industry, government, and academia as proof that a product is one of the most innovative of the year across a broad range of technologies,” said Brian Soller, president of the Products Division at Luna. “This is the first year Luna has submitted an award nomination to the R&D 100, and we are honored to have our test and measurement instrument selected as part of this truly elite group.”
Released in March 2007, the OBR 4400 is an upgraded version of the OBR instrument, with enhanced capabilities in a more compact design. Range has been increased to 2 kilometers, still with millimeters of resolution, and users can monitor the effects from component-level heating in optical amplifiers to strain and load redistribution in aircraft harnesses. Other applications include temperature monitoring inside telecommunications cabinets and enclosures, and a feature that allows users to identify the location in fiber assemblies simply by touching the fiber. With a small, easily transportable platform, the OBR 4400 provides the user with precision reflectometry and unprecedented optical-module inspection and diagnostic capabilities. Luna Technologies also recently introduced a tunable laser, a precision reflectometer, and an optical switch to round out their product offering.
Optical Vector Analyzer™, Optical Backscatter Reflectometer™, and Distributed Sensing System™ are trademarks of Luna Technologies.
NicoDerm® is a registered trademark of GlaxoSmithKline.
Originating Technology/NASA Contribution
Working on NASA missions allows engineers and scientists to hone their skills. Creating devices for the high-stress rigors of space travel pushes designers to their limits, and the results often far exceed the original concepts. The technologies developed for the extreme environment of space are often applicable here on Earth.
Some of these NASA technologies, for example, have been applied to the breathing apparatuses worn by firefighters, the fire-resistant suits worn by racecar crews, and, most recently, the deep-sea gear worn by U.S. Navy divers.
Paragon Space Development Corporation, founded in 1993, is located in Tucson, Arizona. This firm is a woman-owned small business, specializing in aerospace engineering and technology development, and is a major supplier of environmental control and life support system and subsystem designs for the aerospace industry. Paragon has proven itself expert in thermal control for spacecraft in orbit and during reentry, as well as for hypervelocity aircraft.
In recent years, Paragon has worked on several different projects that benefit NASA and the space community. Through a NASA-funded Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract, Paragon utilized its unique thermal analysis and structural design capabilities to develop a new, reduced-weight radiator system for use on the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle, other next-generation spacecraft, and commercial vehicles.
Paragon credits the Arizona Department of Commerce and the Governor’s FAST grant award (Federal and State Technology Partnership program) for the seed funds that led to the NASA SBIR award. The FAST grant program is funded by the U.S. Small Business Administration and is focused on capturing Federal grants for competitive small businesses in each state, creating new jobs and new markets that lead to a better and stronger economy by keeping high-technology jobs in America. Paragon used its $5,000 FAST grant award to write its initial proposal to NASA, a partnership that led to continued research grants and development opportunities.
Other developments resulting from NASA research include Paragon’s Environmental Control and Life Support Human-rating Facility, which the company designed to test emerging life support system designs for suborbital and orbital spacecraft, and the solid oxide electrolysis (SOE) technology, which is under continued development as a Phase II NASA SBIR. The SOE technology directly breaks down the carbon dioxide given off by the crew of a space vehicle and produces oxygen. This is the only known technology with the potential to supply all the crew’s oxygen needs directly from the crew’s metabolic byproducts, significantly saving spacecraft logistical mass. Another NASA project resulted in the development of the metabolic heat temperature swing absorption, which incorporates the technology innovation of using the metabolic heat generated by a space-suited astronaut to absorb and purge carbon dioxide from the breathing loop.
“[Our] partnership with NASA is growing rapidly and has many facets, from spinoffs that protect and enable the war fighter in extreme environments, to technologies that will be used on the Orion spacecraft, and support astronauts on the Moon and Mars,” explained Taber MacCallum, CEO and chairman of the board for Paragon. “NASA is the premier technology organization, and partnering with NASA is a key part of Paragon’s business plan. In our experience, what you put into the partnership determines what you get out of it. Industry’s partnership with NASA is a central component in maintaining America’s technical preeminence and high- technology jobs.”
Similarly, NASA is likely to rely on such commercial space services during the interval between the retirement of the space shuttle and the initial flight of Orion and its Ares launch vehicle.
Navy divers are called on to work in extreme and dangerous conditions. The high pressure of deep diving, toxic chemical spills, hot waters of the Persian Gulf, and chemical warfare agents make for some of the most hazardous working environments on Earth. As such, the Navy requested a diving system that will not fail when exposed to chemicals and would create an impermeable protective shell around the diver. Paragon’s extensive experience providing life support in extreme environments assisted in the development of a line of such products to protect Navy divers against hazardous materials; in particular, the successful design of a diving suit that now has the potential for use in commercial diving.
In designing the suit, Paragon applied its understanding of air flow in a space suit helmet, use of an umbilical to support an astronaut during a spacewalk, cooling undergarment systems to remove excess body heat, computer codes for thermal and airflow analysis, and materials that have been developed for the aerospace industry that are resistant to extreme chemical and temperature environments.
According to MacCallum, the Paragon suit provides “space suit-like” isolation, delivering safe breathing air to the diver. The surface-supplied system collects exhaled air and returns it to the surface to eliminate ingress pathways of hazardous agents through the regulator. The materials, including all soft goods, are impermeable. The development unit has completed unmanned testing, and the human-rated prototype has completed manned testing, having been evaluated by Navy divers at the Navy Experimental Diving Unit facility in Pensacola, Florida.
“The contaminated water diving technology that Paragon developed for the Navy came about as a result of our partnership with NASA. We are able to protect the war fighter and enable missions in extreme pressure, temperature, and chemical environments because NASA paved the way with space suit technologies and the operational know-how that allows astronauts to work in the extreme environment of space.”
More recently, Paragon provided the Navy with a prototype of its Regulated Surface Exhaust Diving System. The Navy has since requested five units for field testing prior to outfitting all Navy dive suits with the Paragon product. Other products under development at Paragon include individual or collective protection systems designed for use in land vehicles and structures.
MacCallum says, “Bringing space technology back to Earth, we provide space suit-like protection for divers working in hazardous environments ranging from chemical and biological warfare agents, to the toxic environment of a shipwreck or chemical spill. Conversely, our technology is now being considered as a way to protect municipal water supplies from being contaminated by divers servicing potable water tanks.”
Although one of NASA’s goals is to send people to the far reaches of our universe, it is still well known that people need Earth. We understand that humankind’s existence relies on its complex relationship with this planet’s environment—in particular, the regenerative qualities of Earth’s ecosystems.
The Microgravity Combustion Science group at NASA’s Glenn Research Center studies how fire and combustible liquids and gasses behave in low-gravity conditions. This group, currently working as part of the Life Support and Habitation Branch under the Exploration Systems Mission Directorate, conducts this research with a careful eye toward fire prevention, detection, and suppression, in order to establish the highest possible safety margins for space-bound materials.