On a much smaller scale, these same concerns apply to astronauts living within the closed system of the International Space Station (ISS). All resources onboard the ISS—air, water, energy—are limited and must be carefully managed and recycled to create a sustainable environment for the crewmembers. This challenge must be met without the natural systems that provide for and sustain life on Earth.
Well before construction of the ISS began in 1998, NASA was investigating ways water could be purified and reused by astronauts living in orbit. One method the Agency explored—through partnership with a small Texas company—involved bringing into space Earth’s most abundant biological resource: bacteria.
Micro-Bac International Inc., headquartered in Round Rock, began business in the early 1980s with the idea to selectively utilize Earth’s natural waste management system to provide safe, efficient, and environmentally sound solutions for a host of applications.
“In the biosphere, everything gets broken down by microorganisms,” says Dennis Schneider, vice president and director of research and development for Micro-Bac. “But in specific waste applications, you find that the right mix of microorganisms is not there. What we’ve found over the years is that we can isolate microorganisms out of the environment, and individual strains of those would have the capacity to break down certain types of organic compounds that are typically difficult to degrade.” The bacteria accomplish this, Schneider explains, by producing protein enzymes that break down organic compounds into subunits, which the bacteria then grow on, creating more bacteria, carbon dioxide, and water.
“It’s a natural process with no toxic byproducts,” says Schneider.
Through Phase I and II Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contracts with Marshall Space Flight Center, the company developed a phototrophic cell for water purification. Inside the cell: millions of photosynthetic bacteria from strains specifically isolated for their ability to break down toxic chemicals astronauts could encounter on the ISS. Requiring only enough light to sustain the bacteria, the cell could provide a low-power option for cleansing wastewater during long-term space missions.
Micro-Bac proceeded to commercialize the bacterial formulation it developed for the SBIR project. Mega-BacTF, first featured in Spinoff 1999, is among the microbial products the company offers to the benefit of cities and industry around the world.
Mega-BacTF is now part of an expanded Mega-Bac product line formulated for organic materials degradation and odor control in large bodies of water like municipal lagoons. Mega-Bac products are also used for the remediation of animal waste, wastewater systems, and septic tanks, and are employed in waste treatment for livestock farms and food manufacturers. The leading U.S. pork producer, tortilla plants, juice makers, microbreweries, and even tequilerias in Mexico use Micro-Bac’s natural, nonpathogenic biotechnology to help limit the environmental impact of their waste byproducts. The company’s bacterial solutions are also popular in tropical regions such as Brazil, where plentiful sunlight makes Micro-Bac’s photosynthetic bacteria a cost-effective alternative to the traditional sludge systems used in municipal wastewater treatment. Micro-Bac also offers products designed to treat hazardous and contaminated waste; dairy waste; grease, fats, and oils; waste from fruit and vegetable processing; and waste from leather tanning.