Health, Medicine, & Biotechnology

Using Electronic Noses To Detect Tumors During Neurosurgery

Sensors would help surgeons determine whether tumors have been removed completely.

It has been proposed to develop special-purpose electronic noses and algorithms for processing the digitized outputs of the electronic noses for determining whether tissue exposed during neurosurgery is cancerous. At present, visual inspection by a surgeon is the only available intraoperative technique for detecting cancerous tissue. Implementation of the proposal would help to satisfy a desire, expressed by some neurosurgeons, for an intraoperative technique for determining whether all of a brain tumor has been removed. The electronic-nose technique could complement multimodal imaging techniques, which have also been proposed as means of detecting cancerous tissue. There are also other potential applications of the electronic-nose technique in general diagnosis of abnormal tissue.

Posted in: Briefs, TSP, Bio-Medical, Medical, Mathematical models, Sensors and actuators, Sensors and actuators, Diagnosis, Diseases, Nervous system, Surgical procedures

Producing Newborn Synchronous Mammalian Cells

This invention could be used to study aging and cancer.

A method and bioreactor for the continuous production of synchronous (same age) population of mammalian cells have been invented. The invention involves the attachment and growth of cells on an adhesive-coated porous membrane immersed in a perfused liquid culture medium in a microgravity analog bioreactor. When cells attach to the surface divide, newborn cells are released into the flowing culture medium. The released cells, consisting of a uniform population of synchronous cells are then collected from the effluent culture medium. This invention could be of interest to researchers investigating the effects of the geneotoxic effects of the space environment (microgravity, radiation, chemicals, gases) and to pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies involved in research on aging and cancer, and in new drug development and testing.

Posted in: Briefs, TSP, Bio-Medical, Medical, Biological sciences, Fabrication, Pharmaceuticals, Test equipment and instrumentation, Test procedures

Biochips Containing Arrays of Carbon-Nanotube Electrodes

Small quantities of biomarkers could be detected rapidly, with simplified preparation.

Biochips containing arrays of nanoelectrodes based on multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) are being developed as means of ultrasensitive electrochemical detection of specific deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) biomarkers for purposes of medical diagnosis and bioenvironmental monitoring. In mass production, these biochips could be relatively inexpensive (hence, disposable). These biochips would be integrated with computer-controlled microfluidic and microelectronic devices in automated hand-held and bench-top instruments that could be used to perform rapid in vitro genetic analyses with simplified preparation of samples.

Posted in: Briefs, TSP, Bio-Medical, Medical, Integrated circuits, Integrated circuits, Biological sciences, Fabrication, Nanotechnology, Test equipment and instrumentation

Apparatus for Sampling Surface Contamination

Liquid suspensions of samples can be dispensed systematically into analytical instruments.

An apparatus denoted a swab device has been developed as a convenient means of acquiring samples of contaminants from surfaces and suspending the samples in liquids. (Thereafter, the liquids can be dispensed, in controlled volumes, into scientific instruments for analysis of the contaminants.) The swab device is designed so as not to introduce additional contamination and to facilitate, simplify, and systematize the dispensing of controlled volumes of liquid into analytical instruments.

Posted in: Briefs, Bio-Medical, Medical, Nozzles, Pistons, Test equipment and instrumentation

Novel Species of Non-Spore-Forming Bacteria

One new bacterial species was discovered in a regenerative enclosed life-support module air system.

While cataloging cultivatable microbes from the airborne biological diversity of the atmosphere of the Regenerative Enclosed life-support Module Simulator (REMS) system at Marshall Space Flight Center, two strains that belong to one novel bacterial species were isolated. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing and the unique morphology and the taxonomic characteristics of these strains, it is shown that they belong to the family Intrasporangiaceae, related to the genus Tetrasphaera, with phylogenetic distances from any validly described species of the genus Tetrasphaera ranging from 96.71 to 97.76 percent.

Posted in: Briefs, Bio-Medical, Medical, Scale models, Bacteria, Life support systems

Chamber for Aerosol Deposition of Bioparticles

Standard coupons can be covered with reproducible areal concentrations of bioparticles.

The laboratory apparatus shown in the figure is a chamber for aerosol deposition of bioparticles on surfaces of test coupons. It is designed for primary use in inoculating both flat and three-dimensional objects with approximately reproducible, uniform dispersions of bacterial spores of the genus Bacillus so that the objects could be used as standards for removal of the spores by quantitative surface sampling and/or cleaning processes. The apparatus is also designed for deposition of particles other than bacterial spores, including fungal spores, viruses, bacteriophages, and standard micron-sized beads. The novelty of the apparatus lies in the combination of a controllable nebulization system with a settling chamber large enough to contain a significant number of test coupons. Several companies market other nebulizer systems, but none are known to include chambers for deposition of bioparticles to mimic the natural fallout of bioparticles.

Posted in: Briefs, TSP, Bio-Medical, Medical, Bacteria, Biomaterials, Test equipment and instrumentation

Hand-Held Units for Short-Range Wireless Biotelemetry

These units would power surgically implanted sensors.

Special-purpose hand-held radio- transceiver units have been proposed as means of short-range radio powering and interrogation of surgically implanted microelectromechanical sensors and actuators. These units are based partly on the same principles as those of the units described in “Printed Multi-Turn Loop Antennas for RF Biotelemetry” (LEW-17879-1), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 31, No. 6 (June 2007), page 48. Like the previously reported units, these units would make it unnecessary to have wire connections between the implanted devices and the external equipment used to activate and interrogate them.

Posted in: Briefs, TSP, Bio-Medical, Medical, Antennas, Radio equipment, Sensors and actuators, Telemetry, Wireless communication systems, Antennas, Radio equipment, Sensors and actuators, Telemetry, Wireless communication systems, Prostheses and implants

Wearable Wireless Telemetry System for Implantable BioMEMS Sensors

Physiological monitoring would entail minimal risk, discomfort, or restriction of mobility.

Telemetry systems of a type that have been proposed for the monitoring of physiological functions in humans would include the following subsystems:

Surgically implanted or ingested units that would comprise combinations of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS)- based sensors [bioMEMS sensors] and passive radio-frequency (RF) readout circuits that would include miniature loop antennas. Compact radio transceiver units integrated into external garments for wirelessly powering and interrogating the implanted or ingested units.
Posted in: Briefs, TSP, Bio-Medical, Medical, Antennas, Sensors and actuators, Telemetry, Wireless communication systems, Antennas, Sensors and actuators, Telemetry, Wireless communication systems, Prostheses and implants

Redesigned Human Metabolic Simulator

Apparatus simulates atmospheric effects of human respiration.

A design has been formulated for a proposed improved version of an apparatus that simulates atmospheric effects of human respiration by introducing controlled amounts of carbon dioxide, water vapor, and heat into the air. Denoted a human metabolic simulator (HMS), the apparatus is used for testing life-support equipment when human test subjects are not available.

Posted in: Briefs, Bio-Medical, Medical, Carbon dioxide, Humidity, Life support systems, Performance upgrades, Test equipment and instrumentation

Cell-Detection Technique for Automated Patch Clamping

Candidate cells are identified automatically within one second.

A unique and customizable machine-vision and image-data-processing technique has been developed for use in automated identification of cells that are optimal for patch clamping. [Patch clamping (in which patch electrodes are pressed against cell membranes) is an electrophysiological technique widely applied for the study of ion channels, and of membrane proteins that regulate the flow of ions across the membranes. Patch clamping is used in many biological research fields such as neurobiology, pharmacology, and molecular biology.] While there exist several hardware techniques for automated patch clamping of cells, very few of those techniques incorporate machine vision for locating cells that are ideal subjects for patch clamping. In contrast, the present technique is embodied in a machine-vision algorithm that, in practical application, enables the user to identify “good” and “bad” cells for patch clamping in an image captured by a charge-coupled-device (CCD) camera attached to a microscope, within a processing time of one second. Hence, the present technique can save time, thereby increasing efficiency and reducing cost.

Posted in: Briefs, TSP, Bio-Medical, Medical, Mathematical models, Artificial intelligence, Charge coupled devices, Imaging, Imaging and visualization, Artificial intelligence, Charge coupled devices, Imaging, Imaging and visualization, Biological sciences

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