Health, Medicine, & Biotechnology

HeartBeatID – Heart Electrical Actions as Biometric Indicia

One or more biometric indicia, such as fingerprints, voice prints, retinal scans, and facial features, are often used to identify or authenticate the identity of a user seeking access to a given resource. Cardiac muscle is myogenic and is capable of generating an action potential and depolarizing and repolarizing signals from within the muscle. An intrinsic conduction system (ICS), a group of specialized cardiac cells, passes an electrical signal throughout the heart as a PQRST (Preview, Question, Read, Study, Test) signature.

Posted in: Briefs, Medical, Security systems, Security systems

Cryogenic Grinding for Mechanical Abrasion for Hardy Endospores

The method is far superior to conventional mechanical abrasion strategies.

A comparative analysis was carried out between an emerging cryogenic grinding method and a conventional wet-chemistry/bead-beating endospore disruption approach. After extensive trial and error, it was determined that a regimen of three cryogenic grinding cycles of 2 minutes each was optimum for downstream DNA recovery. Spores embedded in ice exhibited a mere 1-log reduction in recovery following cryo-milling for up to 30 minutes. The observed total spore-borne DNA recovery was quite impressive, as well established, streamlined techniques for extracting DNA from endospores typically recover, at best, ≈10% of the molecules present. To facilitate the nucleic-acid-based testing required to detect and quantify DNA and endospores recovered, this innovation implements cryogenic grinding procedures followed by qPCR (quantitative polymerase chain reaction) methods to verify this novel capture technique.

Posted in: Briefs, Medical, Research and development

Making Mesh Buckypaper Capsules for Transplantation of Cells and Implantation of Medical Devices

Applications include gene therapy, cell transplantation for treatment of diabetes and other disorders, and improved biocompatibility of implantable medical devices.

The innovation consists of a method for fabricating containers (“biocapsules”) made of biocompatible mesh for holding living cells and tissues, to facilitate transplantation into the body, for a wide range of high-impact medical applications. The biocompatible mesh (buckypaper) is made of carbon nanotubes (CNTs), and the containers are fabricated by depositing the nanotubes onto pre-formed molds, in order to achieve the desired shape and size of the biocapsule. Various forms are possible, including hollow tubes, closed cylinders, and more complex shapes, determined by the configuration of the mold. The biocompatibility of the capsule makes it possible to implant a variety of cells into a host, even cells that would otherwise be considered “foreign,” such as cells from unmatched donors, specially engineered cells, and even nonhuman cells. Because the capsule pores are too small for the cells to pass, the cells stay inside the capsule, where they are protected from the host immune system. The pores of the biocapsule permit gas exchange (oxygen, carbon dioxide), as well as free diffusion of metabolites, which keeps the cells healthy. Tissue or tissue fragments, and micro- or nano-scale medical devices can also be placed inside the biocapsule to facilitate their implantation into the body.

Posted in: Briefs, Medical, Medical, health, and wellness, Fabrication

$19 Million Funding Awarded for Additive Manufacturing Projects

Fifteen projects have received funding for applied R&D projects in additive manufacturing.

America Makes, the National Additive Manufacturing Innovation Institute, announced the 15 awardees of its second call for additive manufacturing (AM) applied research and development projects. Driven by the National Center for Defense Manufacturing and Machining, America Makes will provide $9 million in funding toward these projects with $10.3 million in matching cost share from the awarded project teams for total funding worth $19.3 million. The projects are expected to commence in early Spring.

Posted in: Briefs, MDB, Briefs, Medical, Research and development, Manufacturing processes

Making Injection Molding More Energy Efficient

Thin-film heating can improve the quality of plastic parts.

In the future, thin-film heating will allow plastic parts to be produced with greatly improved surface quality. Researchers at the Fraunhofer Institute for Mechanics of Materials IWM, Freiburg, Germany, say they have found a way to make the whole process more energy efficient.

Posted in: Briefs, MDB, Briefs, Medical, Forming, Plastics, Parts

Updated Facts on 2015 HCFC-225 Usage Ban

Beginning January 1, 2015, HCFC-225, a common precision solvent for high-end cleaning, will be banned for usage. How will this affect end-users?

In 1974, Sherwood Rowland and Mario Molina discovered that chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) were depleting the ozone layer, and in 1995, they received the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for this work. In response, the United Nations Environment Programme called an international conference to discuss the issue. Shortly thereafter, the US banned all non-essential uses of CFCs as propellants in aerosols. The Montreal Protocol required all developed countries to begin the phase-out of CFCs in 1993 and reduce CFCs to 50% of the baseline by 1998. A timeline for the phase out of hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) was created in 1997. To meet the 90% total reduction requirement for all HCFCs by 2015, HCFC-225 is now being phased out.

Posted in: Briefs, MDB, Briefs, Medical, Environmental protection, Environmental regulations and standards

Using Molded Foam Makes Assembly a Snap

Today, medical devices are made using a variety of plastic materials and manufacturing processes. Advances in plastic processing make it possible to obtain virtually any shape, form, or function. In addition, the vast assortment of plastics available allows designers to design for the optimal balance of functionality, performance, and cost. Expanded polypropylene (EPP) is a plastic material that is starting to gain traction in the medical device market as product designers become more familiar with the multiple benefits it can provide.

Posted in: Briefs, MDB, Briefs, Medical, Medical, health, and wellness, Foams, Plastics

Diagnosing Wrist Problems in Motion with MRI

“Active-MRI” could diagnose wrist problems sooner.

Moving images could be invaluable when it comes to diagnosing wrist problems say a group of researchers at University of California-Davis. The multi-disciplinary team of radiologists, medical physicists, and orthopaedic surgeons say that they have found a way to create “movies” of the wrist in motion using a series of brief magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans. Called “Active-MRI,” the technique could be used to diagnose subtle changes in physiology that indicate the onset of conditions such as wrist instability.

Posted in: Briefs, MDB, Briefs, Medical, Imaging, Imaging and visualization, Imaging, Imaging and visualization, Medical, health, and wellness, Biomechanics

Assessment of Microbial Bioburden Within Aerogel Matrices

A post-capture aerogel degradation via cryogenic grinding is compatible with downstream nucleicacid- based molecular modes of analysis.

A makeshift apparatus has been designed composed of a sealed, hydrophobic 2-propanol/SiO2 aerogel component to filter outside air particles. Following verification and assessment, the apparatus was crafted with a Buchner funnel. Aerogel matrices were tightly fitted into filter housings and secured in side-arm flasks, which were then equipped to a vacuum pump to pull air through the aerogel matrices. Aerogels, both with and without fiberglass reinforcement, were used to collect airborne particulates for one- and three-hour increments. An untreated negative control aerogel, employing air collection from a laminar hood, and a positive aerogel matrix were seeded with endospores that verified the extraction from the matrices.

Posted in: Briefs, MDB, TSP, Briefs, TSP, Medical, Particulate matter (PM), Biological sciences, Particulate filters, Test procedures

Rehabilitation of Visual and Perceptual Dysfunction after Severe Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI)

A new optical device could help those with TBI detect and avoid obstacles on the affected side.

The aim of this work is to conduct preliminary evaluations of new rehabilitation strategies and new functional assessment methods for homonymous hemianopia (HH) and spatial neglect (SN), two disabling visual and cognitive perception conditions that commonly occur as a result of severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) and stroke. Both HH and SN prevent detection of objects on completed the protocol: an 18-year-old male with left HH without SN, who has had HH for two years as a result of an arteriovenous malformation that required surgery.

Posted in: Briefs, MDB, Briefs, Bio-Medical, Medical, Optical Components, Optics, Medical, health, and wellness, Head injuries

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