Health, Medicine, & Biotechnology

Diagnosing Wrist Problems in Motion with MRI

“Active-MRI” could diagnose wrist problems sooner.

Moving images could be invaluable when it comes to diagnosing wrist problems say a group of researchers at University of California-Davis. The multi-disciplinary team of radiologists, medical physicists, and orthopaedic surgeons say that they have found a way to create “movies” of the wrist in motion using a series of brief magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans. Called “Active-MRI,” the technique could be used to diagnose subtle changes in physiology that indicate the onset of conditions such as wrist instability.

Posted in: Briefs, MDB, Briefs, Medical, Imaging, Imaging and visualization, Imaging, Imaging and visualization, Medical, health, and wellness, Biomechanics
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Assessment of Microbial Bioburden Within Aerogel Matrices

A post-capture aerogel degradation via cryogenic grinding is compatible with downstream nucleicacid- based molecular modes of analysis.

A makeshift apparatus has been designed composed of a sealed, hydrophobic 2-propanol/SiO2 aerogel component to filter outside air particles. Following verification and assessment, the apparatus was crafted with a Buchner funnel. Aerogel matrices were tightly fitted into filter housings and secured in side-arm flasks, which were then equipped to a vacuum pump to pull air through the aerogel matrices. Aerogels, both with and without fiberglass reinforcement, were used to collect airborne particulates for one- and three-hour increments. An untreated negative control aerogel, employing air collection from a laminar hood, and a positive aerogel matrix were seeded with endospores that verified the extraction from the matrices.

Posted in: Briefs, MDB, TSP, Briefs, TSP, Medical, Particulate matter (PM), Biological sciences, Particulate filters, Test procedures
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Rehabilitation of Visual and Perceptual Dysfunction after Severe Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI)

A new optical device could help those with TBI detect and avoid obstacles on the affected side.

The aim of this work is to conduct preliminary evaluations of new rehabilitation strategies and new functional assessment methods for homonymous hemianopia (HH) and spatial neglect (SN), two disabling visual and cognitive perception conditions that commonly occur as a result of severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) and stroke. Both HH and SN prevent detection of objects on completed the protocol: an 18-year-old male with left HH without SN, who has had HH for two years as a result of an arteriovenous malformation that required surgery.

Posted in: Briefs, MDB, Briefs, Bio-Medical, Medical, Optical Components, Optics, Medical, health, and wellness, Head injuries
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Implantable Spring for Knee Osteoarthritis

Spring absorbs excess load on knee joints while standing.

Healthy joints and cartilage are exposed to mechanical loads during everyday motion and activity. While normal joint loading can help maintain joint tissues, high loading due to obesity, or abnormal loading due to anatomy or trauma can contribute to microfractures, bone thickening, and cartilage degradation. Many osteoarthritis (OA) therapies only provide short-term pain relief or repair focal cartilage damage. When the biomechanics behind joint overload are left untreated, however, the patient may suffer through several rounds of unsuccessful therapies until he or she is a candidate for knee replacement surgery.

Posted in: Briefs, MDB, Briefs, Bio-Medical, Implants & Prosthetics, Medical, Orthopedics, Springs, Body regions
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Visual Image Sensor Organ Replacement

This innovation is a system that augments human vision through a technique called “Sensing Super-position” using a Visual Instrument Sensory Organ Replacement (VISOR) device. The VISOR device translates visual and other sensors (i.e., thermal) into sounds to enable very difficult sensing tasks.

Posted in: Briefs, TSP, Medical, Imaging, Imaging and visualization, Sensors and actuators, Imaging, Imaging and visualization, Sensors and actuators, Noise, Noise
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A Novel Protocol for Decoating and Permeabilizing Bacterial Spores for Epifluorescent Microscopy

This technique can be used in semiconductor, pharmaceutical, and food processing industries.

Based on previously reported procedures for permeabilizing vegetative bacterial cells, and numerous trial-and-error attempts with bacterial endospores, a protocol was developed for effectively permeabilizing bacterial spores, which facilitated the applicability of fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) microscopy. Bacterial endospores were first purified from overgrown, sporulated suspensions of B. pumilus SAFR-032. Purified spores at a concentration of ≈10 million spores/mL then underwent proteinase-K treatment, in a solution of 468.5 μL of 100 mM Tris-HCl, 30 μL of 10% SDS, and 1.5 μL of 20 mg/mL proteinase-K for ten minutes at 35 ºC. Spores were then harvested by centrifugation (15,000 g for 15 minutes) and washed twice with sterile phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) solution. This washing process consisted of resuspending the spore pellets in 0.5 mL of PBS, vortexing momentarily, and harvesting again by centrifugation. Treated and washed spore pellets were then resuspended in 0.5 mL of decoating solution, which consisted of 4.8 g urea, 3 mL Milli-Q water, 1 mL 0.5M Tris, 1 mL 1M dithiothreitol (DTT), and 2 mL 10% sodium-dodecylsulfate (SDS), and were incubated at 65 ºC for 15 minutes while being shaken at 165 rpm.

Posted in: Briefs, Bio-Medical, Medical, Biological sciences
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Method and Apparatus for Automated Isolation of Nucleic Acids from Small Cell Samples

Advantages include reduced or eliminated use of toxic reagents and operator-independent extraction.

RNA isolation is a ubiquitous need, driven by current emphasis on micro-arrays and miniaturization. With commercial systems requiring 100,000 to 1,000,000 cells for successful isolation, there is a growing need for a small-footprint, easy-to-use device that can harvest nucleic acids from much smaller cell samples (1,000 to 10,000 cells). The process of extraction of RNA from cell cultures is a complex, multi-step one, and requires timed, asynchronous operations with multiple reagents/buffers. An added complexity is the fragility of RNA (subject to degradation) and its reactivity to surface.

Posted in: Briefs, TSP, Bio-Medical, Medical, Biological sciences, Medical, health, and wellness
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Enabling Microliquid Chromatography by Microbead Packing of Microchannels

The microbead packing is the critical element required in the success of onchip microfabrication of critical microfluidic components for in-situ analysis and detection of chiral amino acids. In order for microliquid chromatography to occur, there must be a stationary phase medium within the microchannel that interacts with the analytes present within flowing fluid. The stationary phase media are the microbeads packed by the process discussed in this work. The purpose of the microliquid chromatography is to provide a lightweight, low-volume, and low-power element to separate amino acids and their chiral partners efficiently to understand better the origin of life.

Posted in: Briefs, Medical, Biological sciences, Fabrication, Biomaterials
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On-Command Force and Torque Impeding Devices (OC-FTID) Using ERF

This technology is applicable as a rehabilitation or exercise device.

Various machines have been developed to address the need for countermeasures of bone and muscle deterioration when humans operate over extended time in space. Even though these machines are in use, each of them has many limitations that need to be addressed in an effort to prepare for human missions to distant bodies in the solar system.

Posted in: Briefs, TSP, Bio-Medical, Medical, Anthropometrics, Human factors, Medical, health, and wellness, Electrohydraulics, Pistons, Biomechanics
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RECOVIR Software for Identifying Viruses

Most single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) viruses mutate rapidly to generate a large number of strains with highly divergent capsid sequences. Determining the capsid residues or nucleotides that uniquely characterize these strains is critical in understanding the strain diversity of these viruses. RECOVIR (an acronym for “recognize viruses”) software predicts the strains of some ssRNA viruses from their limited sequence data. Novel phylogenetic-treebased databases of protein or nucleic acid residues that uniquely characterize these virus strains are created. Strains of input virus sequences (partial or complete) are predicted through residue-wise comparisons with the databases.

Posted in: Briefs, Medical, Software, Computer software / hardware, Computer software and hardware, Computer software / hardware, Computer software and hardware, Medical, health, and wellness, Identification
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