Health, Medicine, & Biotechnology

External Cooling Coupled to Reduced Extremity Pressure Device

The use of reduced-pressure boots and gloves may mitigate the effects of stroke and heart attacks.

Although suited astronauts are currently cooled with a Liquid Cooled Ventilation Garment (LCVG), which can remove up to 85 percent of body heat, their effectiveness is limited because cooling must penetrate layers of skin, muscle, fat, bone, and tissue to reach the bloodstream, where its effect is prominent. Vasoconstriction further reduces the effectiveness by limiting arterial flow when exposed to cold (the frostbite response), resulting in a time constant on the order of 20 minutes from application to maximum effect. This delay can be crucial in severe exposure to hypo- or hyper-thermic conditions, compromising homeostasis.

Posted in: Briefs, TSP, Bio-Medical, Medical, Body regions, Cooling, Spacesuits

Method for Impeding Degradation of Porous Silicon Structures

This method tailors degradation of a drug delivery system to enable controlled release of therapeutic agents.

This invention relates to surface modification of porosified silicon (pSi) structures with poly(alkylene) glycols for the purpose of controlled degradation of the silicon matrix and tailored release of encapsulated substances for biomedical applications. The pSi structures are currently used in diverse biomedical applications including bio-molecular screening, optical bio-sensoring, and drug delivery by means of injectable/orally administered carriers and implantable devices.

Posted in: Briefs, Bio-Medical, Medical, Biological sciences, Medical equipment and supplies, Prostheses and implants, Pharmaceuticals, Silicon alloys

Improved Devices for Collecting Sweat for Chemical Analysis

Unlike prior devices, these would enable measurement of volumes of specimens.

Improved devices have been proposed for collecting sweat for biochemical analysis — especially for determination of the concentration of Ca2+ ions in sweat as a measure of loss of Ca from bones. Unlike commercially available sweat-collection patches used previously in monitoring osteoporosis and in qualitative screening for some drugs, the proposed devices would not allow evaporation of the volatile chemical components (mostly water) of sweat. Moreover, the proposed devices would be designed to enable determination of the volumes of collected sweat. From these volumes and the quantities of Ca2+ and/or other analytes as determined by other means summarized below, one could determine the concentrations of the analytes in sweat.

Posted in: Briefs, Bio-Medical, Medical, Medical equipment and supplies, Diagnostics, Calcium, Elastomers

Method and Apparatus for Forming Nanodroplets

This technique can create functionalized particles for targeted drug delivery.

This innovation uses partially miscible fluids to form nano- and microdroplets in a microfluidic droplet generator system.

Posted in: Briefs, Bio-Medical, Medical, Nanotechnology

Rapid Detection of the Varicella Zoster Virus in Saliva

This kit provides a rapid, sensitive, specific, and inexpensive method for early virus detection.

Varicella zoster virus (VZV) causes chicken pox on first exposure (usually in children), and reactivates from latency causing shingles (usually in adults). Shingles can be extremely painful, causing nerve damage, organ damage, and blindness in some cases. The virus can be life-threatening in immune-compromised individuals. The virus is very difficult to culture for diagnosis, requiring a week or longer.

Posted in: Briefs, Bio-Medical, Medical, Diagnosis, Diseases, Fluids and secretions

Pulse Oximeter for Mobile Phone Platforms

A low-cost, robust prototype device conveys the quality and trend of physiological data (oxygen saturation, heart rate, respiratory rate) over time, utilizing an intuitive user interface.

Pulse oximetry non-invasively measures blood oxygen saturation (SpO2) and heart rate using a photo sensor to track the amount of absorbed light emitted by a red and infra-red LED. It allows for the rapid diagnosis of hypoxemia (low blood oxygen levels), which is difficult to identify clinically until the blood turns blue (a late sign). Since becoming the standard of care during anesthesia in the early 1980s, pulse oximetry has extended throughout much of the hospital, greatly improving patient safety due to early detection of clinical deterioration. This can rescue a patient from the permanent effects of lack of oxygen, such as brain damage or death.

Posted in: Briefs, MDB, Briefs, Bio-Medical, Diagnostics, Medical, Patient Monitoring, Sensors and actuators, Sensors and actuators, Medical equipment and supplies

Multi Bore Flow Restrictor

This technology can be integrated into different applications for reliable liquid and/or gas flows, including ambulatory pain pumps, insulin administration, and wound care systems.

Accuracy and reliability are key issues in the medical device industry — especially regarding administration of medical fluids or gases. Many medical fluid administration sets are provided with a flow restrictor. So far, a glass capillary is usually applied. However, this component has many shortcomings. The multi bore flow restrictor presented here solves many of these shortcomings as experienced with the present flow restrictors, and provides cost advantages.

Posted in: Briefs, MDB, Briefs, Bio-Medical, Medical, Medical equipment and supplies

Bionanomatrix Coating Boosts Biocompatibility of Implants

A patent-pending, natural, self-assembling technology could overcome problems associated with the body’s rejection of prosthetics and implants.

Cardiovascular stents and other medical implants increase lifespan and quality of life for millions around the world — yet adverse effects attenuate their full potential. Bionanomatrix coatings for such devices can vastly improve long-term outcomes.

Posted in: Briefs, MDB, Briefs, Coatings & Adhesives, Materials, Bio-Medical, Implants & Prosthetics, Medical, Cardiovascular system, Prostheses and implants, Coatings Colorants and Finishes, Coatings, colorants, and finishes

Thermal Management Solutions for Medical Applications

Thermoelectric Assemblies (TEAs) offer precise temperature control for applications with tight space constraints and low weight requirements.

Thermal management of medical electronic devices and systems is now more challenging. Power densities continue to increase while product form factors continue to shrink. Simple thermal management solutions, such as passive cooling (adding a fan and heat sink), are no longer typically viable to meet required performance and reliability specifications. In today’s complex medical operating environment, Thermo electric Assemblies (TEAs) are necessary to provide precise temperature control via cooling and heating in a variety of modular platforms.

Posted in: Briefs, MDB, Briefs, Electronics, Electronics & Computers, Bio-Medical, Medical, Patient Monitoring, Medical equipment and supplies, Thermal management, Thermal management

High-Resolution Ophthalmic Ultrasound System for Ocular Structures

This technology may be used to obtain a critical view of the posterior segment of the eye when a dense cataract or vitreous hemorrhage is present.

An ophthalmic ultrasound system evaluates ocular structures more clearly by providing images of all aspects of the anterior segment. It provides images of the eye and tissues around and behind the eye to determine the presence of pathology when doctors are prohibited from viewing it directly due to opacity of the cornea, lens, or the vitreous gel that fills the eye.

Posted in: Briefs, MDB, Briefs, Bio-Medical, Diagnostics, Medical, Imaging, Imaging and visualization, Imaging, Imaging and visualization, Body regions, Diagnosis

The U.S. Government does not endorse any commercial product, process, or activity identified on this web site.