Manufacturing & Prototyping

Method of Making a Composite Panel Having Subsonic Transverse Wave Speed Characteristics

Applications include internal aircraft structures, buildings, and enclosures for machines.

NASA's Langley Research Center has developed an enhanced design for a composite panel with a recessed core. NASA designed it to decrease the radiation efficiency and increase the transmission loss while maintaining load-bearing capability so it could be used in applications such as aircraft floors. Similar to traditional composite panels, the innovation possesses low weight characteristics, but in addition, it can be used in load-bearing applications. The invention was developed for NASA's Quiet Aircraft Technology Program. The superior design of the composite panel can be used in a wide variety of commercial applications wherever honeycomb is needed and improved acoustics are desired. NASA has patented and tested the novel design, and is interested in attracting development partners and potential licensees for the recessed core composite panel design.

Posted in: Briefs, Manufacturing & Prototyping, Aircraft structures, Design processes, Flooring, Flooring, Composite materials
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Additively Manufactured Modular Thrust Chamber

Thrust chambers have historically been difficult to manufacture. They require extensive tooling and labor, and are expensive with long lead times. Thrust chambers were designed for manufacture using conventional machining. As a result, designs required multiple pieces to ensure machine tool access to each surface. The individual pieces would then be joined and assembled into a single thrust chamber. These joining operations typically required process development due to the complexity of the parts and the need for joining to provide a seal between parts. A faster, more reliable and affordable manufacturing method was desired.

Posted in: Briefs, Manufacturing & Prototyping, Additive manufacturing, Productivity, Engine components, Rocket engines, Reliability, Reliability
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Hot Isostatic Pressing of 60-Nitinol

The material 60-Nitinol (60wt%Ni-40wt%Ti) has a unique combination of physical properties, including high hardness, low apparent elastic modulus, and resistance to saltwater corrosion. These properties give the material tremendous potential for use in aerospace and defense-related components such as bearings, gears, and other apparatuses. Various methods of primary processing are being explored for fabrication of high-performance components that are free of metallurgical defects that might lead to premature failure. Hot isostatic pressing (HIP) is one process under consideration. The steps in the HIP process include (a) filling a sealed canister of the appropriate dimensions with powder, (b) heating the canister under vacuum to remove volatile and gaseous contents, (c) applying heat and pressure to the evacuated and sealed canister to consolidate the contents, and (d) removing the canister.

Posted in: Briefs, Manufacturing & Prototyping, Fabrication, Materials properties, Reliability, Reliability
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Logistics for Building Radiation Storm Shelters and their Operational Evaluation

Various habitat structures were tested for use in exploration activities.

Over the past three years, NASA has been studying the operational effectiveness and astronaut protection efficacy of numerous radiation protection shelters for use in space exploration activities outside of Earth's magnetosphere. The work was part of NASA's Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) RadWorks Storm Shelter project. Fabricated items were integrated into mockup deep space habitat vehicle sections for operational evaluations. Two full-scale human-in-loop simulations were designed, fabricated, and implemented. The goal was to provide design and performance assessment information for consideration by mission designers who must quantify the radiation protection characteristics of their exploration trade space.

Posted in: Briefs, Manufacturing & Prototyping, Protective structures, Radiation protection, Spacecraft
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Vapor-Barrier Vacuum Isolation System

Applications include metal fabrication in the automotive, aerospace, sporting goods, and medical industries.

Electron Beam Freeform Fabrication, or EBF3, is a process that uses an electron beam gun, a dual wire feed, and computer controls to manufacture metallic structures for building parts or tools in hours, rather than days or weeks. EBF3 can manufacture complex geometries in a single operation, and provides efficient use of power and feedstock. The technology has a wide range of applications, including automotive, aerospace, and rapid prototyping. It can build large metallic parts measuring feet in length, and has been reduced in size and power to enable zero-gravity experiments conducted on NASA's Reduced Gravity aircraft.

Posted in: Briefs, Manufacturing & Prototyping, CAD / CAM / CAE, CAD, CAM, and CAE, Rapid prototyping, Fabrication, Metallurgy
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Silicon Micro-Emitters for Microfluidic Electrospray Propulsion Systems

Advances in microfabrication capabilities are enabling the development of micro-needles for highly compact electrospray systems.

JPL's Microfluidic Electrospray Propulsion (MEP) thruster design is based on a microfabricated electrospray system with a capillary-force-driven feed system that uses indium metal as the propellant. This architecture provides an extremely compact, modular system scalable to a wide range of applications from micro spacecraft to large, space-based telescopes.

Posted in: Briefs, Manufacturing & Prototyping, Architecture, Microelectricmechanical device, Microelectromechanical devices, Architecture, Microelectricmechanical device, Microelectromechanical devices, Propellants, Spacecraft fuel, Silicon alloys
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Use of Beam Deflection to Control an Electron Beam Wire Deposition Process

NASA Langley Research Center researchers have a strong technology foundation in the use of electron-beam (e-beam) deposition for freeform fabrication of complex shaped metal parts. While e-beam wire deposition is of interest for rapid prototyping of metal parts, cost-effective near-net shape manufacturing, and potential use in space, it is also of intense interest for industrial welding and fabrication in a range of applications, from small components to large aerospace structures. Through significant advancements in techniques to improve control of the process, NASA greatly expands upon the capabilities of the e-beam fabrication and welding process.

Posted in: Briefs, Manufacturing & Prototyping, Performance upgrades, Fabrication, Welding, Metals
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Thermal Stir Welding Process

NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center is developing an improved joining technology called thermal stir welding that improves upon fusion welding and friction stir welding. This new technology enables a superior joining method by allowing manufacturers to join dissimilar materials and to weld at high rates. NASA's technology offers users an exciting alternative to state-of-the-art fusion and friction stir welding technologies.

Posted in: Briefs, Manufacturing & Prototyping, Manufacturing equipment and machinery, Welding
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Systems, Apparatuses, and Methods for Using Durable Adhesively Bonded Joints for Sandwich Structures

A preform insert enables redundant bond lines and mass efficient load transfer across the joint.

NASA'S Langley Research Center has developed a new adhesively bonded joint concept for curved and flat panel sandwich architectures. A woven preform, inserted into the seam between sandwich panels, provides a larger total bonding area and multiple load paths for an improved distribution of load through the joint. NASA is able to create structures by joining sections of sandwich panels or curved shells. The new joint provides more durable load transfer and redundant load paths compared to current state-of-the-art adhesively bonded strap joints.

Posted in: Briefs, Manufacturing & Prototyping, Product development, Joining, Adhesives and sealants
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Preliminary Design of a Cryogenic Hydrogen Radiation Shield for Human Spaceflight

Liquid hydrogen is the most mass-efficient radiation shielding material.

Human susceptibility to the harsh space radiation environment has been identified as a major hurdle for exploration beyond low-Earth orbit (LEO). High-energy protons and nuclei ions from Solar Energetic Particles (SEPs) and Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCRs) can result in radiation doses that are dangerous to astronaut health and even survivability if the astronauts are not adequately shielded. These high-energy particles also cause significant amounts of secondary radiation when they impinge on the spacecraft structure. Hydrogen or hydrogen-rich materials are ideal materials for radiation shielding because hydrogen does not easily break down to form a secondary radiation source.

Posted in: Briefs, Manufacturing & Prototyping, Hydrogen storage, Hydrogen storage, Human factors, Radiation protection, Spacecraft
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