Manufacturing & Prototyping

Atmospheric Pressure Plasma-Based Fabrication of Printable Electronics and Functional Coatings

Applications include biomedical, consumer electronics, security, and communications industries.

Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, California

The need for low-cost and environmentally friendly processes for fabricating printable electronics and biosensor chips is growing. Nanomaterials have proved to be very useful in both printable electronics due to their electronic properties, and in biosensors for signal transduction, and amplification. Chemical vapor deposition requires high temperatures for the growth of nanostructures, restricting the type and nature of materials that can be used as substrates. Conventional plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition requires high vacuum equipment, and the need for vacuum results in additional costs of vacuum pumps and energy resources.

Posted in: Briefs, Manufacturing & Prototyping, Electronic equipment, Electronic equipment, Fabrication, Coatings Colorants and Finishes, Coatings, colorants, and finishes, Nanomaterials
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Passive Destructive Interference Acoustic Liner for a Turbofan Engine Using Additive Manufacturing

John H. Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, Ohio

This technology exploits the capabilities of additive manufacturing to attenuate the fan noise within the inlet or aft duct of a turbofan engine. The approach may be expanded to include auxiliary power units, environmental control systems, or other cooling systems requiring noise attenuation.

Posted in: Briefs, Manufacturing & Prototyping, Insulation, Exterior noise, Exterior noise, Fans, Turboprop engines
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Lunar Cold Trap Contamination by Landing Vehicles

Software and methods are developed to assess the magnitude and distribution of lunar surface contamination caused by the engine exhaust of a landing vehicle.

John F. Kennedy Space Center, Florida

The emerging interest in lunar mining poses a threat of contamination to pristine craters at the lunar poles, which act as cold traps for water, and may harbor other valuable minerals. Lunar Prospector type missions will be looking for volatile (molecular) compounds that may be masked by the exhaust gases from landing vehicle engines. The possible self-contamination of the landing site could negate the scientific value of the soil samples taken in the vicinity of the landing site. Self-contamination may also lead to false-positive readings of resources available on the lunar surface. This innovation addresses the software and methods needed to assess the magnitude and distribution of lunar surface contamination caused by the engine exhaust of landing vehicles on known or planned descent trajectories.

Posted in: Briefs, TSP, Aerospace, Manufacturing & Prototyping, Software, Exhaust emissions, Spacecraft
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Fabrication of Single-Mode, Distributed-Feedback, Interband Cascade Lasers

Applications exist in the oil and gas industry, automobile emissions monitors, breath analyzers, and fire detection equipment.

Type-II interband cascade lasers (ICLs) based on the GaSb material system represent an enabling technology for laser absorption spectroscopy in the 3-to-5-μm wavelength range. Instruments operating in this spectral regime can precisely match strong absorption lines of several gas molecules of interest in atmospheric science and environmental monitoring, specifically methane, ethane, other alkanes, and inorganic gases. Compared with non-semiconductor-based laser technologies, ICLs can be made more compact and power efficient, ultimately leading to more portable, robust, and manufacturable spectroscopy instruments.

Posted in: Briefs, Manufacturing & Prototyping, Lasers & Laser Systems, Optics, Photonics, Optics, Optics, Fabrication, Gases, Test equipment and instrumentation
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Developing Ceramic-Like Bulk Metallic Glass Gears

This technology has applications in gears, bearings, and gearboxes for automotive, spacecraft, and robotics.

This invention describes systems and methods for implementing bulk metallic glass-based (BMG) macroscale gears with high wear resistance.

This invention creates bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) with selected mechanical properties that are very similar to ceramics, such as high strength and resistance to wear, but without high melting temperatures. Ceramics are high-strength, hard materials that are typically used for their extremely high melting temperatures. Because of their extreme hardness, ceramics are optimal materials for making gears, due to their low wear loss. Unfortunately, ceramics suffer from low fracture toughness (typically <1 MPa·m1/2), and their high melting temperatures prevent them from being cast into net-shaped parts. Ceramic gears, for example, must be ground to a final shape at great expense.

Posted in: Briefs, Manufacturing & Prototyping, Ceramics, Materials, Metals, Motion Control, Ceramics, Glass, Wear
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Mechanically Induced Nucleation Improves Crystalline Quality During Melt Growth of Semiconductors

Significantly lower supercooling results in the ideal growth condition of single crystal nucleation.

Marshall Space Flight Center, Alabama

For certain semiconductors with important applications, the existing bulk crystal growth technique from the melt usually results in poor-quality multi-crystalline ingots that cause the typically low yield of the commercial growth process. The low-quality, multi-grained crystal growth is mainly caused by the large supercool of the melt, which prohibits the ideal growth condition that a small, single-crystal nucleus forms at the very tip and grows into a large single crystal. For instance, semi-insulating cadmium zinc telluride (CdZnTe) crystal is a highly promising material for room-temperature x-ray and gamma ray detectors. However, the major hurdle in using the CdZnTe crystals is its cost. The ability to pack many data acquisition channels (hundreds) with the stopping power for high-energy radiation requires large single crystals of CdZnTe.

Posted in: Briefs, Manufacturing & Prototyping, Semiconductors & ICs, Semiconductors, Data acquisition, Data acquisition (obsolete)
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Fabrication of a Nanopipette Array for Biosensing

Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, California

Development of biosensors is an active field due to a wide range of applications in lab-on-a-chip, diagnostics of infectious diseases, cancer diagnostics, environment monitoring, biodetection, and others. One of the strategies used for selective identification of a target is to preselect a probe that has a unique affinity for the target, or can uniquely interact or hybridize with the target — a lock and key approach. In this approach, one then needs a platform to support the probe and a recognizing element that can recognize the said interaction between the probe and the target. Electrical readout biosensors have gained much attention because, in principle, they can be made more compact than optical technologies.

Posted in: Briefs, Manufacturing & Prototyping, Sensors and actuators, Sensors and actuators, Medical, health, and wellness, Diagnostics, Fabrication
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Variable-Sweep-Wing Aircraft Configuration

There are significant improvements in structural, aerodynamic, and energy efficiency.

Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, California

Efficient aircraft designs are increasingly desired in order to support the continued growth of the air transportation industry. Continued expansion of this vital mode of transportation is threatened due to concerns over ever-increasing emissions, noise, and the demand for fuel. Current airport runway, ramp, and terminal facilities are increasingly constrained by encroaching growth and neighborhood environmental issues. The challenges associated with ever-increasing demand for air travel will require the development of aircraft that can fly efficiently over wide speed ranges, minimize their environmental impacts, offer the potential for sizing and growth relative to market demand, and make efficient use of constrained airport and airspace resources.

Posted in: Articles, Briefs, Aeronautics, Aerospace, Aviation, Energy Efficiency, Manufacturing & Prototyping, Mechanical Components, Fuselages, Wings, Product development, Aircraft
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Process for Coating Substrates With Catalytic Materials

This process can remove volatile organic compounds from indoor air in planes, automobiles, homes, and industrial plants.

Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia

This invention relates to the process of coating substrates with one or more components to form a catalyst; specifically, the process of layering one or more catalytic components onto a honeycomb monolith to form a carbon monoxide oxidation that combines CO and O2 to form CO2, or alternatively, a volatile organic compound oxidation catalyst that combines the compound and O2 to form CO2 and H2O.

Posted in: Briefs, TSP, Manufacturing & Prototyping, Carbon monoxide, Catalysts, Coatings Colorants and Finishes, Coatings, colorants, and finishes
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Portable Friction Stir Welding Machine

The machine is capable of butt-welding aluminum 1,100 workpieces 1/8 in. (≈3 mm) thick.

Marshall Space Flight Center, Alabama

A preliminary design of a portable friction stir welding (FSW) machine for use in space has been developed. The in-space FSW machine takes the form of a handheld router tool that is historically used in woodworking applications. With the design of the in-space FSW machine, the FSW tool is directly connected to the motor shaft while the motor is mounted to a small frame that supports the tool. The frame has handlebars that allow the operator to grasp the welder and maneuver it along a desired weld path. The key enabler of the in-space FSW machine is an innovative FSW tool design. The FSW tool is a fixed shoulder-to-shoulder bobbin tool that self-aligns and adjusts to the workpiece. The self-aligning and adjusting FSW (SAA-FSW) tool floats freely in the vertical direction, thereby eliminating any external axial load on the machine or operator. The total weight of the in-space FSW machine is 73 lb (≈33 kg), and it only requires one operator. The machine is capable of butt-welding aluminum 1,100 workpieces 1/8 in. (≈3 mm) thick.

Posted in: Briefs, Manufacturing & Prototyping, Welding, Aluminum
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