Tech Briefs

Cellular Pressure-Actuated Joint

Pockets in one of the sealing members would help maintain differential pressure. A modification of a pressure-actuated joint has been proposed to improve its pressure actuation in such a manner as to reduce the potential for leakage of the pressurizing fluid. The specific joint for which the modification is proposed is a field joint in a reusable solid-fuel rocket motor (RSRM), in which the pressurizing fluid is a mixture of hot combustion gases. The proposed modification could also be applicable to other pressure- actuated joints of similar configuration.

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Force-Measuring Clamps

Clamping forces can be measured easily and quickly. Force-measuring clamps have been invented to facilitate and simplify the task of measuring the forces or pressures applied to clamped parts. There is a critical need to measure clamping forces or pressures in some applications — for example, while bonding sensors to substrates or while clamping any sensitive or delicate parts. Many manufacturers of adhesives and sensors recommend clamping at specific pressures while bonding sensors or during adhesive bonding between parts in general.

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Multiple-Use Mechanisms for Attachment to Seat Tracks

These could serve as standard or universal seat-track clamps. A Seat Track Attach Mechanism (SAM) is a multiple-use clamping device intended for use in mounting various objects on the standard seat tracks used on the International Space Station (ISS). The basic SAM design could also be adapted to other settings in which seat tracks are available: for example, SAM-like devices could be used as universal aircraft- seat-track mounting clamps.

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Tool for Bending a Metal Tube Precisely in a Confined Space

This tool offers capabilities that prior tools do not. A relatively simple, manually operated tool enables precise bending (typically, within ±1/2° of the specified bend angle) of a metal tube located in a confined space, with a minimum of flattening of the tube and without significant gouging of the tube surface. The tool is designed for use in a situation in which the tube cannot be removed from the confined space for placement in a conventional bench- mounted tube bender. The tool is also designed for use in a situation in which previously available hand-held tube benders do not afford the required precision, do not support the tube wall sufficiently to prevent flattening or gouging, and/or do not fit within the confined space.

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Turbulence in Supercritical O2/H2 and C7H16/N2 Mixing Layers

This report presents a study of numerical simulations of mixing layers developing between opposing flows of paired fluids under supercritical conditions, the purpose of the study being to elucidate chemical-species- specific aspects of turbulence. The simulations were performed for two different fluid pairs — O2/H2 and C7H16/N2 — at similar reduced initial pressures (reduced pressure is defined as pressure ÷ critical pressure). Thermodynamically, O2/H2 behaves more nearly like an ideal mixture and has greater solubility, relative to C7H16/N2, which departs strongly from ideality. Because of a specified smaller initial density stratification, the C7H16/N2 layers exhibited greater levels of growth, global molecular mixing, and turbulence. However, smaller density gradients at the transitional state for the O2/H2 system were interpreted as indicating that locally, this system exhibits enhanced mixing as a consequence of its greater solubility and closer approach to ideality. These thermodynamic features were shown to affect entropy dissipation, which was found to be larger for O2/H2 and concentrated in high-density-gradient-magnitude regions that are distortions of the initial density-stratification boundary. In C7H16/N2, the regions of largest dissipation were found to lie in high-density-gradient-magnitude regions that result from mixing of the two fluids.

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Throttling Cryogen Boiloff To Control Cryostat Temperature

Consumption of liquid cryogen and electrical energy could be reduced. An improved design has been proposed for a cryostat of a type that maintains a desired low temperature mainly through boiloff of a liquid cryogen (e.g., liquid nitrogen) at atmospheric pressure. (A cryostat that maintains a low temperature mainly through boiloff of a cryogen at atmospheric pressure is said to be of the pour/fill Dewar-flask type because its main component is a Dewar flask, the top of which is kept open to the atmosphere so that the liquid cryogen can boil at atmospheric pressure and cryogenic liquid can be added by simply pouring it in.) The major distinguishing feature of the proposed design is control of temperature and cooling rate through control of the flow of cryogen vapor from a heat exchanger. At a cost of a modest increase in complexity, a cryostat according to the proposal would retain most of the compactness of prior, simpler pour/fill Dewar-flask cryostats, but would utilize cryogen more efficiently (intervals between cryogen refills could be longer).

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Software for Viewing Landsat Mosaic Images

A Windows-based computer program has been written to enable novice users (especially educators and students) to view images of large areas of the Earth (e.g., the continental United States) generated from image data acquired in the Landsat observations performed circa the year 1990. The large-area images are constructed as mosaics from the original Landsat images, which were acquired in several wavelength bands and each of which spans an area (in effect, one tile of a mosaic) of ≈5° in latitude by ≈6° in longitude. Whereas the original Landsat data are registered on a universal transverse Mercator (UTM) grid, the program converts the UTM coordinates of a mouse pointer in the image to latitude and longitude, which are continuously updated and displayed as the pointer is moved. The mosaic image currently on display can be exported as a Windows bit-map file. Other images (e.g., of state boundaries or interstate highways) can be overlaid on Landsat mosaics. The program interacts with the user via standard toolbar, keyboard, and mouse user interfaces. The program is supplied on a compact disk along with tutorial and educational information.

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