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### Issue Archive

# Algorithms for Maneuvering Spacecraft Around Small Bodies

Thursday, 16 November 2006

A document describes mathematical derivations and applications of autonomous guidance algorithms for maneuvering spacecraft in the vicinities of small astronomical bodies like comets or asteroids.
These algorithms compute fuel- or energy-optimal trajectories for typical maneuvers by solving the associated optimal-control problems with relevant control and state constraints. In the derivations, these problems are converted from their original continuous (infinite-dimensional) forms to finite-dimensional forms through (1) discretization of the time axis and (2) spectral discretization of control inputs via a finite number of Chebyshev basis functions. In these doubly discretized problems, the Chebyshev coefficients are the variables. These problems are, variously, either convex programming problems or programming problems that can be convexified. The resulting discrete problems are convex parameter-optimization problems; this is desirable because one can take advantage of very efficient and robust algorithms that have been developed previously and are well established for solving such problems. These algorithms are fast, do not require initial guesses, and always converge to global optima. Following the derivations, the algorithms are demonstrated by applying them to numerical examples of fly-by, descent-to-hover, and ascent-from-hover maneuvers.

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Posted in: Information Sciences, Briefs, TSP

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# Improved Solar-Radiation-Pressure Models for GPS Satellites

Thursday, 16 November 2006

A report describes a series of computational models conceived as an improvement over prior models for determining effects of solar-radiation pressure on orbits of Global Positioning System (GPS) satellites. These models are based on fitting coefficients of Fourier functions of Sun-spacecraft- Earth angles to observed spacecraft orbital motions. Construction of a model in this series involves the following steps:

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Posted in: Information Sciences, Briefs, TSP

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# Fast Lossless Compression of Multispectral-Image Data

Thursday, 16 November 2006

A low-complexity adaptive-filtering algorithm is used.
An algorithm that effects fast lossless compression of multispectral-image data is based on low-complexity, proven adaptive filtering algorithms. This algorithm is intended for use in compressing multispectral-image data aboard spacecraft for transmission to Earth stations. Variants of this algorithm could be useful for lossless compression of three-dimensional medical imagery and, perhaps, for compressing image data in general.

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Posted in: Information Sciences, Briefs, TSP

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# Manufacture of Regularly Shaped Sol-Gel Pellets

Thursday, 16 November 2006

For mass production, an extrusion process is superior to a spray process.
An extrusion batch process for manufacturing regularly shaped sol-gel pellets has been devised as an improved alternative to a spray process that yields irregularly shaped pellets. The aspect ratio of regularly shaped pellets can be controlled more easily, while regularly shaped pellets pack more efficiently. In the extrusion process, a wet gel is pushed out of a mold and chopped repetitively into short, cylindrical pieces as it emerges from the mold. The pieces are collected and can be either (1) dried at ambient pressure to xerogel, (2) solvent exchanged and dried under ambient pressure to ambigels, or (3) supercritically dried to aerogel. Advantageously, the extruded pellets can be dropped directly in a cross-linking bath, where they develop a conformal polymer coating around the skeletal framework of the wet gel via reaction with the cross linker. These pellets can be dried to mechanically robust X-Aerogel.

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Posted in: Manufacturing & Prototyping, Briefs, TSP

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# Improved Fabrication of Lithium Films Having Micron Features

Thursday, 16 November 2006

Dry chemicals and a dry process are used to prevent undesired reactions.
An improved method has been devised for fabricating micron-dimension Li features. This approach is intended for application in the fabrication of lithium-based microelectrochemical devices — particularly solid-state thinfilm lithium microbatteries.

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Posted in: Manufacturing & Prototyping, Briefs, TSP

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# Producing Quantum Dots by Spray Pyrolysis

Thursday, 16 November 2006

Sizes of quantum dots are determined by sizes of sprayed drops.
An improved process for making nanocrystallites, commonly denoted quantum dots (QDs), is based on spray pyrolysis. Unlike the process used heretofore, the improved process is amenable to mass production of either passivated or non-passivated QDs, with computer control to ensure near uniformity of size.

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Posted in: Machinery & Automation, Mechanical Components, Briefs

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# System Would Acquire Core and Powder Samples of Rocks

Thursday, 16 November 2006

A sampling system would be built around an ultrasonic/sonic drill corer.
A system for automated sampling of rocks, ice, and similar hard materials at and immediately below the surface of the ground is undergoing development. The system, denoted a sample preparation, acquisition, handling, and delivery (SPAHD) device, would be mounted on a robotic exploratory vehicle that would traverse the terrain of interest on the Earth or on a remote planet. The SPAHD device would probe the ground to obtain data for optimization of sampling, prepare the surface, acquire samples in the form(s) of cores and/or powdered cuttings, and deliver the samples to a selected location for analysis and/or storage.

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Posted in: Machinery & Automation, Mechanical Components, Briefs, TSP

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